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MCAT Beh. Sci Ch. 5

Motivation Purpose or driving force behind our actions
Extrinsic Motivation Motivation based on external circumstances
Intrinsic Motivation Based on internal drive or perception
Primary Factors That Influence Emotion Are: Instincts, arousal, drives, and needs
Instincts Innate, fixed patterns of behavior in response to stimuli.
Instinct Theory Of Motivation People perform certain behaviors because of these evolutionarily programmed instincts
Arousal Theory People perform actions to maintain arousal at an optimal level
Arousal State of being awake and reactive to stimuli
Yerkes-Dodson Law Shows that performance is optimal at a medium level of arousal
Drives Internal states of tension that beget particular behaviors focused on goals.
Primary Drives Are Related To: Bodily processes
Secondary Drives Stem From: Learning and include accomplishments and emotions
Drive Reduction Theory States that motivation arises from the desire to eliminate drives, which create uncomfortable internal states.
Satisfying Needs May Also Drive: Motivation
Maslow's Hierarchy Of Needs Prioritizes needs into 5 categories from high to low priority: Physiological needs, safety and security, love and belonging, self-esteem, and self-actualization
Self-determination Theory Emphasizes the role of three universal needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness
Incentive THeory Explains motivation as the desire to pursue rewards and avoid punishments
Expectancy-value Theory States that the amount of motivation for a task is based on the individual's expectation of success and the amount that success is valued
Opponent-process Theory Explains motivation for drug use; as drug use increases, the body counteracts its effects, which leads to tolerance and uncomfortable withdrawal symptoms
Sexual Motivation Is Related To: Hormones, as well as cultural and social factors
Emotion A state of mind or feeling that is subjectively experienced based on circumstances, mood, and relationships
Three Components Of Emotion Are: Cognitive (subjective), behavioral (facial expression and body language), and physiological (changes in the sympathetic nervous system)
Seven Universal Emotions Are: Happiness, sadness, contempt, surprise, fear, disgust, and anger
James-Lange Theory Of Emotion Nervous system arousal leads to a cognitive response in which the emotion is labeled
Cannon-Bard Theory Of Emotion Simultaneous arousal of the nervous system and cognitive response lead to action
Schachter-Singer Theory Nervous system arousal and interpretation of context lead to a cognitive response
Limbic System Primary nervous system component involved in experiencing emotion
Amygdala Involved with attention and fear. This helps interpret facial expressions and is part of the intrinsic memory system for emotional memory
Thalamus Sensory processing station
Hypothalamus Releases neurotransmitters that affect mood and arousal
Hippocampus Creates long-term explicit (episodic) memories
Prefrontal Cortex Involved with planning, expressing personality, and making decisions
Ventral Prefrontal Cortex Critical for experiencing emotion
Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Involved in controlling emotional responses from the amygdala and the decision-making
Stress Physiological and cognitive response to challenges or life changes
Primary Appraisal Stage Of Stress Classifying a potential stressor as irrelevant, benign-positive, or stressful
Secondary Appraisal Stage Of Stress Directed at evaluating if the organism can cope with the stress, based on harm, threat, and challenge
Stressor Anything that leads to a stress response, and can include environment, daily events, workplace or academic settings, social expectations, chemicals, and biological stressors.
Psychological Stressors Include: Pressure, control, predictability, frustration, and conflict
Stressors Can Lead To: Distress or eustress
Three Stages Of The General Adaptation Syndrome Are: Alarm, resistance, and exhaustion
Stress Management Can Include: Psychological, behavioral, and spiritual aspects.
Created by: SamB91