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Chapter 8 and 11

What are the functions of the HemoGlobin? Heme carries oxygen (oxygen is attached to protein hemog) Globin is a protein that carries heme
What does erythroprotein activate? sythesis of red blood cells
Describe the regulation of synthesis in the red blood cell. Decreased oxygen causes increased erythropoitein (stimulates RBC synthesis) which causes increased RBC
What are red blood cells broken down into? macrophages
What are Globin and Heme when recycling RBC? Globin are protein amino acids and Heme are iron + bilirum BOTH are oxygen carriers
Describe the first 3 types of white blood cells and the category they are in Granulocytes 1. Neutrophils: they are phagocytes 2. Basalphils: release histamine (inflammation) and heparin (anticoagulant) 3. Eosinophils: inflammatory chemicals (allergies), toxins against worms
Describe the last 2 types of white blood cells Agranulocytes 4.Lympohocytes: give intstructions to other cells on what to attack (produce antibodies, allergic reactions, graft rejection and tumor control) 5.Monocytes: become macrophage in tissues, in blood, activate lymphocytes
What are Platelets? Cell fragments involved in clotting
What are the blood groups, their antigen and antibody? A A anti-B B B anti-A AB A, B none O, none, anti-A, Anti-B Rh+ RH none Rh- none anti Rh
What is the universal Donor and Recipient? D: O- R: AB+
What are the functions of blood? Transport Regulation (pH fluid and ion balance Temp Regulation Protection (pathogens, toxins) Tissue repair and blood loss
What does blood transport? gases, nutrients, waste products, processed molecules, regulatory molecules
What is blood composed of and their percentages? Fibrinogen 4% Globulins 38 % Plasma: 55 % Albumin 58 % OTHER: ions nutrients waste gases water
What is distilled blood? water ()blood may also contain sodium, calcium, etc)
What is the difference between plasma and serum? Serum is plasma without the clotting factors
Describe Hematopoiesis •Hematompolesis = production of blood cells. site = mostly BONE MARROW
What 3 cells come from myeloblast? Granulocytes: NEUTROPHIL, BASALPHIL, ESINOPHIL
Describe a blood clot (clotting factors). 1.Thromboplastin released, activates PROTHROMBINASE 2. Prothrombin -> Thrombin 3.Fibrinogen -> Fibrin
Describe Heparin is used to prevent clotting. it is an anticologen produced by the body and is in the liver
Describe removing a blood clot Clot retraction: actin and myosin in platelets. Dissolving clot is FIBRINOLYSIS: Plasminogen activates plasmin (going 2 dissolve) this is activated by Plasminogen Activator and thrombin)
What is fibrinolysis? breaking down fibrin or removing a clot
What are the 6 divisions of the nervous system? 1. Central/Peripheral 2. Sensory/Motor 3.Motor: Somatic/Autonomic 4.Autonomic: (sympathetic/parasympathetic) 5. Central/Enteric 6. Gray Matter/White Matter
What are the 5 functions of the nervous system? 1. Intake 2. Inegration 3.Output 4.Homeostasis 5. thought
Neurons recieve stimuli, conduct action potentials, and transmit signals to other neurons or effector organs
Neuroglia (Gilala cells) the nonneural cells of CNS and PNS
Astrocytes supporting cells in the CNS (blood brain bawler)
Ependymal Cells cells lining venticals and duct in spinal cord (filled cavities)
Microglia go into brain - act as immune cells of CNS
Oligodendrocytes CNS insulating axons
Schwann Calls PNS insulating axons
Describe action potentials ------------------
Where is conduction the fastest? in milinated cells
What is synapse ? a chemical connection between 2 neurons
Describe neurotransmitters during synapse 1.neurotransmitters are stored in presynaptic terminals (vesicles). 2. the space seperating pre and post is the synaptic cleft (diffusion) 3. postsynaptic membrane" membrane of dendrite or effector cell (receptors)
What is the Reflex arc? (does not include brain and is not conscious!) neronal pathway by which a reflex occurs
What are the 5 basic components of a Reflex Arc? 1. Sensory Receptor 2. Sensory Neuron (Perip) 3. interneuron (central) 4.motor neuron (perip) 5. Effector organ (muscle)
What is converging and diverging of a neuron pathway? C: 2 or more neurons synapse with the same neuron converge into a single pathway D: axon from one neuron divides and synapses with more than one other neuron (diverge to 2 or more pathway)
What is Spatial and Temporal Summation in Neuron Pathways? S: allows integrations of multiple subthreshold local potentials T: local potentials overlap in time
What are the 2 types of Spinal Cord motor reflexes? 1. Stretch Reflex (knee-jerk) 2. Withdrawal Reflex (see handouts for details)
What does the Medulla control in the Brain? (It is most inferior portion, continuous with spinal cord) Controls heart rate, breathing, swallowing (AUTONOMIC)
What does the midbrain control in the brain? (superior to pons. smallest region of brain stem) hearing, visual reflexes (reticular formation)
Whats the Job of basal nuclei and cerebellum ? balance and coordination
What does the left and right side of brain do? R: controls left side (spatial perception, art music) L:controls right side (analytic math science)
Describe Memory working short term long term declarative/procedural memories
S in B: describe Meninges 3 connective tissue coverings: Dura (outer), arachnoid (web, int level), Pia (thin attached to brain tissue)
S in B: describe Ventricles 4 spaces in brain 1. Lateral ventricles in cerebrum 2.3rd V in Diencephalon 3.4th V at base of cerebellum 4. central canal - spinal cord
S in B: describe Cerebrospinal Fluid produced by Choroid Plexus of Venticles LV to 3V to 4V to subarachnoid space
What is the frontal lobe control? MOTOR
Describe S & P of heart S: increase rate and force P: decrease rate
Describe S & P of Vessels S: constrict or dilate P: none
Describe S & P of Lungs S: constrict bronchioles P: dilate bronchioles
Describe S & P of Eyes S: dilate pupil, relax ciliary muscle P: constrict pupil, contract CM
Describe S & P of Stomach/Intestine S: decrease motility, contract spincters P: increase motility relax sphincters
Describe S & P of Liver S: break down glycogen, release glucose P: Synthesize glycogen
Describe S & P of Adipose S: breakdown fat P: -
Describe S & P of Adrenal S: secrete epinephrine , norepinephrine P: none
Describe S & P of Sweat Glands S: secrete sweat P: none
Describe S & P of Salivary glands S: thick P: watery saliva
Describe S & P of urin. Bladder S: relax muscle. constrict sphincter P: contract muscle, relax spincter
Describe S & P of Pancreas S: decrease digestive enz and insulin P: increase digestive enz and insulin
Created by: corrina_