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MA 103

Chapter 20

QuestionAnswer
Bulla A large blister or cluster of clisters
Cicatrix A scar, usually inside a wound or tissue
Crust Dried blood or pus on the skin
Ecchymosis A black and blue mark or bruise
Erosion A shallow area of skin worn away by friction or pressure
Excoriation A scratch; may be covered with dried blood
Fissure A crack in the skin's surface
Keloid An overgrowth of scar tissue
Macule A flat skin discoloration, such as a freckle or a flat mole
Nodule A large pimple or small node (larger than 6 cm)
Papule An elevated mass similar to but smaller than a nodule
Petechiae Pinpoint skin hemmorrhages that result from bleeding disorders
Plaque A small, flat scaley area of skin
Purpura Purple-red bruises usually the result of clotting abnormalities
Pustule An elevated (infected) lesion containing pus
Scale Thin plaques of epithelial tissue on the skin's surface
Tumor A swelling of abnormal tissue growth
Ulcer A wound that results from tissue loss
Vesicle A blister
Wheal Another term for hive
What is the functions of the integumentary system? Protection, Temperature regulation, Vitamin D production, Sensation, Excretion
What are the layers of the skin? Epidermis, Dermis, Subcutaneous (or hypodermis)
Which layer of the skin is the most superficial layer? The epidermis
What are the 2 layers of the epidermis? Stratum Corneum, Stratum Basale
What is the most common cell type in the epidermis? Keratinocyte
What does keratin do for the skin? makes it waterproof, makes it resistant to bacteria and viruses
what is a melanocyte? a skin cell that makes the pigment
what is the name of the pigment found in a melanocyte? melanin
what are the 2 glands found in the dermis? suderiferous and sebaceous
what is adipose tissue also known as? fat
what is the function of adipose tissue? storage, cusions and insulates underlying structures and organs
what determines the color of the skin? melanin
besides the amount of melanin in the skin, what is another factor that determines skin color? the amount of oxygenated blood in the dermis of the skin
edema retention of fluid in the tissues
oxygen is carried by a pigment called hemoglobin
cyanosis a bluish color of the skin
hemoglobin that is well oxygenated will appear bright red
hemoglobin that is not well oxygenated will appear darker red
a tube-like depression in the dermis that function to generate hairs are called hair follicles
which structure is attached to most hair follicles and functions to raise the hairs to stand on end? arrector pili muscles
which structure functions to produce an oily sunstance on the skin called SEBUM sebaceous glands
what functions to protect the end s of the fingers and toes? nails
the white half-moon shaped area at the base of a nail is called lanula
what are the 2 types of sweat gland? eccrine and apocrine glands
which glands are the most numerous in the skin, and produce a watery type of sweat, and are activated primarily by heat? Eccrine glands
which glands of the skin produce a thick type of sweat that contains a lot of proteins Apocrine glands
when skin is damaged it becomes inflammed
inflammation causes redness and swelling because the nearby blood vessels dilate
why is inflammation painful? because the excess fluid activated pain receptors
even though inflammation is red and painful, it promotes healing
a scab forms on the skin when the structures of the blood vessels and the dermis are damaged
a blood clot on the surface of the skin is eventually replaced by a scab
what is the second leading cause of accidental death in the US after MVA? burns
what is a quick way to estimate the extent of body surface area affected by a burn? the rule of nines
a superficial burn is also known as a first-degree burn
a partial-thickness burn is also known as a second-degree burn
a full-thickness burn is also known as a third-degree burn
burns that involve only the epidermis are considered to be first-degree burns
burns that involve the epidermis and dermis are considered to be second-degree burns
burns that involve all layers of the skin and the underlying structures such a muscles and bones are considered to be third-degree
when treating a burn, if something is stuck to it, what should you do? leave it in place
TURE OR FALSE: only ointments prescribed by a doctor should be applied to a burn true
burns should be cooled with large amounts of cool water and you should avoid using ice or extremely cold water
burns should be covered with a sterile dressing or plastic bag
skin cancer is more common in light or dark colored skin? light
what are the 2 most common types of skin cancer? basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma
which type of skin cancer accounts for approximately 90% of all skin cancers? basal cell carcinoma
signs and symptoms of basal cell carcinoma changes on the skin and a new growth or sore on the skin that does not heal, appears waxy, smooth, red, pale, flat or lumpy and may or may not bleed
signs and symptoms of squamous cell carcinoma a mole that itches or bleeds, new moles may also develop near it
when talking about skin moles, we use the ABCDE rule, what do the letters stand for? A; asymmetry. B; border. C; color. D; diameter. E; evolving
how many stages of melanoma are there? five
stage 0 melanoma malignancy is found only in the epidermis
stage 1 melanoma malignancy has spread to the epidermis and dermis, and has a thickness of 1-2 mm
stage 2 melanoma nalignancy has a thickness of 2-4 mm and mayhave an ulceration
stage 3 melanoma malignancy has spread to one or more nearby lymph nodes
stage 4 melanoma malignancy has spread to other body organs or other lymph nodes far away from the original melanoma site
alopecia a disorder that specifically targets hair
an inflammation of connective tissues in skin and primarily occurs on the face and legs cellulitis
a general term defined as an inflammation of skin or a rash dermatitis
how do we cure alopecia? it is hereditary, it is not curable.
which protein gives skin it's protective quality? keratin
what is the medical term for hair loss? alopecia
what medical term is most commonly known as a hive? wheal
dilation of small facial blood vessels, rosacea
tinea corpus, tinea capitis, tinea pedis ringworm
contagious skin condition caused by mites scabies
harmless growths caused by a virus warts
folliculitis inflammation of a hair follicle
dermatitis inflammation of the skin
chronic dermatitis eczema
shingles herpes zoster
oozing skin lesions that eventually crust over impetigo