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chapter 26

Ayn Rand A Russian-American novelist, philosopher, playwright, and screenwriter. She is known for her two best-selling novels, The Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged, and for developing a philosophical system she called Objectivism.
"New Physics" Pioneered by the Curies, Plank and Einstein,made the world seem much more random and not as much certainty.
Max Planck German physicist who proved that subatomic energy was emitted from particles, he called them "quanta"
Albert Einstein, theory of relativity A German-born theoretical physicist and philosopher of science, a theory that all motion must be defined relative to a frame of reference and that space and time are relative, rather than absolute concepts
Ernest Rutherford New Zealand-born British physicist who classified radiation into alpha, beta, and gamma types and discovered the atomic nucleus. He won the 1908 Nobel Prize in chemistry.
Friedrich Nietzsche A German philosopher who believed that the strength that produces heroes and great artists springs from something beyond reason. He criticized Christianity and democracy for empowering the mediocrity of the sheeplike masses.
"God is Dead" German poet's belief that God was "murdered" by lazy modern Christians who no longer believed in Him
übermenschen The superman that Nietzsche believed would enforce new ethical values/morals to control the masses.
Sigmund Freud, "ID" contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives; operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification
Paul Valèry French poet and critic that spoke of a "crisis of the mind," and "a dark future for Europe"
Ludwig Wittgenstein 1920s; member of an influential group of philosophers and mathematicians in Vienna who sought to introduce logical positivism.
Logical empiricism The philosophical ideology that simply rejected the concerns of modern philosophy, like god and morality. Mainly started with Austrian philosopher Wittgenstein.
Oswald Spenger, "Decline of the West" an obscure German high school teacher who wrote Decline of the West, said the west was about to be conquered by Asians. 
T.S Eliot, "The Waste Land" regarded as "one of the most important poems of the 20th century" and a central text in Modernist poetry
Erich Maria Remarque: All Quiet on the Western Front describes the German soldiers' extreme physical and mental stress during the war, and the detachment from civilian life felt by many of these soldiers upon returning home from the front written by a German Veteran of World War I
Werner Heisenberg a German theoretical physicist that speculated that there was no real certainty in where an electron was, and only tendencies. This broke down Newton's dependable laws to only probabilities
Bauhaus movement a German interdisciplinary school of fine and applied arts that brought together many leading modern architects, designers, and theatrical innovators
Walter Gropius a German architect and founder of the Bauhaus School, which was a major proponent of functionalism and industrial form in Germany
Pablo Picasso, Guernica a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright; the Guernica is considered his greatest work
Dadaism an artistic movement of the 1920s and 1930s that attacked all accepted standards of art and behavior and delighted in outrageous conduct
Frans Kafka German language writer of novels and short stories regarded as one of the most influential authors of the 20th century.
Existentialism A philosophy that emphasizes the uniqueness ans isolation of the individual experience in a hostile or indifferent universe, regards human existence as unexplainable ans stresses freedom of choice and responsibility for the consequences of ones acts
John-Paul Sartre A french philosipher, political activist, and literary critic and one of the key figures in philosophy of existentialism and marxism
Albert Camus A french noble prize winning author, journalist, and philospher, whose views contributed to the rise of philosophy known as absurdism.
George Orwell, 1984, Animal Farm An allegorical and dystopian novel by George Orwell which reflects events leading up to the Russian Revolution of 1917 and on into the Stalin era in the Soviet Union
Marcel Duchamp: The Fountain L.H.O.O.Q. is a work of art by Marcel Duchamp, which was conceived in 1919
Surrealism a 20th-century movement in art and literature that sought to release the potential of the unconscious mind
Salvador Dali was a prominent Spanish surrealist painter born in Spain.
Alberto Giacometti, Man Pointing one of Alberto Giacometti's best known pieces of artwork. This piece was finished in 1947
Igor Stravinsky was a Russian composer, pianist and conductor. He is widely considered to be one of the most important and influential composers of the 20th century.
Arnold Shonberg was an Austrian composer and painter, associated with the expressionist movement in German poetry and art. During the Nazi reign, his works were labelled as degenerate music because he was Jewish.
Sergei Eisenstein A Soviet Russian film director and film theorist.
Leni Riefenstahl A German film director who directed the Nazi propaganda film Triumph of the Will.
Radio A device that transmits electromagnetic signals.
Guglielmo Marconi An Italian inventor and electrical engineer who worked on a long-distance radio transmission and a radio telegraph system.
British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) A public service broadcaster.
Created by: birmingham