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A&P Exam 1

Spring 2015

How are living things organized? Atoms > Molecules > organelles > cells> Tissues > Organs >Organ Systems > Organism
How many organ systems are there? 11
What is extrinsic regulation controlled by? Nervous and Endocrine systems
What does the effector do? carries out instructions
What does Supine mean? lying down, face up
How many elements do living organisms require 20
What is potential energy of position? the energy it takes to hold electrons in place
What is Oxidation? the loss of an electron
What is Reduction? The gain of an electron
What is a molecule? Two of the same atom
What is a compound? Two different atoms
What are the 3 things chemical reactions are influenced by? Temperature, Catalysts, and concentration of reactants and products
What is Energy? The power to do work
What is Work? a change in mass or distance
What is chemical energy? potential energy stored in chemical bonds (ATP)
What is Electrical energy movement of charged particles
What is Mechanical energy? moving matter
What is Radiant Energy electromagnetic (energy in waves)
What is Catabolism? Decomposition reaction (AB > A+B)
What is Anabolism? Synthesis reaction (A+B > AB)
What is Hydrolysis? The removal of water (A-B-C-D-E+H2O > A-B-C-H+HO-D-E)
What is Dehydration Synthesis? The addition of water (condensation) (A-B-C-H+HO-D-E > A-B-C-D-E+H2O)
What are metabolites? molecules made or broken down in the body
What are the 4 properties of water? Solubility, reactivity, high heat capacity, lubrication
What are the 3 type of Carbohydrates? Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides
What are monosaccharides? simple sugars with 3-7 carbon atoms (glucose)
What are disaccharides? 2 simple sugars condensed by dehydration synthesis (sucrose)
What are polysaccharides? Chains of many simple sugars (glycogen)
What are the 5 types of lipids? Fatty acids, Eicosanoids, Glycerides, Steroids, Phospholipids and Glycolipids
What are the 2 types of Eicosanoids? Leukotrienes and Prostaglandins
What are Leukotrienes? active in immune system
What are Prostaglandins? short-chain fatty acids, local hormones
What are Glycerides? fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule
What is a Triglyceride? Fat storage molecule
What are the 4 types of Steroids? Cholesterol, Estrogens and Testosterone, Corticosteroids and calcitrol, and bile salts
What is a corticosteroid and calcitrol? metabolic regulators
How many amino acids are there? 20
What are the 7 protein functions? support, movement, transport, buffering, metabolic regulation, coordination and control, and defense
What are the 5 parts of an amino acid? central carbon, hydrogen, amino group (-NH2), carboxylic acid group (-COOH), and R group
What makes up an amino group? NH2
What makes up a carboxylic group? COOH
What is a peptide bond? a dehydration synthesis between an amino group and carboxylic group
What are fibrous proteins? structural sheets or strands
What are globular proteins? soluble spheres with active functions
What is a cofactor? an ion or molecule that binds to an enzyme before substrates can bind
What are the bases A & T? Purines
What are the bases C & G Pyrimidines
What makes up a nucleotide? sugar, phosphate group, nitrogenous base (building block of DNA)
What are the 3 components of the cell membrane? lipids, carbohydrates, proteins
What are the 6 functions of membrane proteins? Anchoring, recognition, enzymes, receptor, carrier, channels
What are the 3 membrane carbohydrates? Proteoglycans, glycoproteins, glycolipids
What filaments make up the cytoskeleton? microfilaments, intermediate, and microtubules
What are microfilaments? thin filaments composed of actin that provide additional mechanical strength and pairs with myosin for muscle movement
What are intermediate filaments? made of durable collagen used to strengthen and maintain shape, stabilize organelles, and stablilize cell position
What are microtubules? Made of tubulin, used to attach to centrosome, strengthen cell and anchor organelles, change cell shape, move vesicles, and form spindle apparatus
What are free ribosomes for? proteins for cell
what are fixed ribosomes for? proteins for secretion
What are proteasomes? contain proteases that disassmble damaged proteins for recylcing
What are cisternae? storage chambers within ER membranes
What is the function of ER synthesis of protein, storage of synthesized molecules, and detoxification of drugs or toxins
What is the function of smooth ER synthesize lipids and carbohydrates
Primary lysosome formed by Golgi and inactive enzymes
Secondary lysosome lysosome fused with damaged organelle, digestive enzyme activated, toxic chemicals isolated
What are Peroxisomes enzyme-containing vesicles that break down fatty acids and organic compounds and produce H2O2
What is the cristae? the mitochondria's folded inner membrane
What does the nucleoli do? protein production, synthesis rRNA
What are the 7 methods of transport? simple diffusion, channel-mediated diffusion, osmosis, faciliated diffusion, active transport, endocytosis, and exocytosis
What is tonicity? the osmotic effect of a solute on a cell
What is hemolysis? when a cell ruptures
What is crenation? When a cell shrivels
Give an example of active transport Sodium-Potassium Pump
Explain the sodium-potassium pump K+ is not able to come directly in, so NA+ is bound to glucose from the outside, brought into the cell, and then exchanged for K+. 2 K+ for every 3 NA+
Pinocytosis and Phagocytosis are part of what transport? Endocytosis
Explain endocytosis receptors (glycoproteins) bind target molecules (ligands) and create a vesicle that then fuses with a lsysosome and releases the ligands. Receptor detaches from lysosome and returns to cell membrane
What are pseudopodia? the hole that forms in the membrane during endo or exocytosis
What happens in the G zero phase? specialized cell functions
What happens in the G1 phase? cell growth, organelle duplication, protein synthesis
what happens in the S phase? DNA replication and histone synthesis
What happens in the G2 phase? finishing of protein synthesis and centriole replication
What does DNA polymerase do? attaches complementary nucleotides
What are the characteristics of epithelial tissue? cellularity, polarity, attachment, avascularity, and regeneration
What are the functions of epithelial tissue? provide physical protection, control permeability, provide sensation, and produce specialized secretions
What is the function of simple squamous epithelium? absorption and diffusion
What does mesothelium line? body cavities
what does endothelium line? heart and blood vessels
mesothelium and endothelium are a type of what tissue? simple squamous epithelium
What is the function of stratified squamous epithelium? protects against attacks
What is the function of simple cuboidal epithelium? secretion and absorption (kidney tubules)
What is the function of stratified cuboidal epithelium? sweat and mammary ducts
What is the function of simple columnar epithelial? absorption and secretion
What is the function of pseudostratified columnar epithelium? cilia movement
What is the function of stratified columnar epithelium? protection
What are the types and functions of glandular epithelium? Endocrine gland that release hormones into interstitial fluid and have no ducts, and exocrine glands that produce secretions onto epithelial surfaces through ducts
What are the 3 modes of secretion? Merocrine, Apocrine, and Holocrine
What is Merocrine secretion? produced by golgi body, released by vesicles (sweat glands)
What is Apocrine secretion? produced by Golgi apparatus, released by shedding cytoplasm (mammary gland)
What is Holocrine secretion? released by cells bursting, killing gland cells, and replaced by stem cells (sebaceous glands)
What are the functions of connective tissue? connect epithelium to the rest of the body, provide structure, store energy, and transport materials
Characteristics of collagen fibers most common in connective tissue proper, resists force in 1 direction (tendons and ligaments)
Characteristics of Reticular fibers resists force in many directions (sheaths around organs)
Where is areolar tissue found? holds blood vessels and capillary beds (under skin)
Where is reticular tissue found? supportive fibers that support functional cells, reticular organs, spleen, liver, lymph nodes, and bone marrow
What is dense regular connective tissue for? attachment and stabilization (tendons, ligaments)
What is dense irregular connective tissue for? layered in skin, around cartilage, around bones, and form capsules around some organs (liver, kidneys)
Characteristics of Hyaline Cartilage stiff, flexible support; reduces friction between bones; found in synovial joints, rib tips, sternum, and trachea
Characteristics of Fibrocartilage Cartilage Limits movement; prevents bone to bone contact; pads knee joints; found between pubic bones and intervertebral discs
What is Perosteum covers bone surfaces
What are the 4 types of membranes Mucous, Serous, Cutaneous, and Synovial
Characteristics of Mucous Membrane Line passages that have external passageways
Characteristics of Serous Membrane Line cavities not open to the outside; Have fluid transudate to reduce friction; have 2 portions (parietal and visceral)
Characteristics of Synovial Membrane Line articulating joint cavities; produce synovial fluid; protect ends of bones
Skeletal Muscles Striated, voluntary, and multinucleated
Cardiac Muscles Striated, involuntary, and single nucleus; form branching networks connected at intercalated disks
Smooth Muscles nonstriated, involuntary, and single nucleus
Created by: Asund6



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