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Q1 Anatomy

Cells: The Living Units

The smallest living units in our bodies Cells
"Little organs" that carry on essential functions of cells Organelles
Direct chemical reactions in cells, Biological catalysts that speed up all of the chemical reactions that take place in a cell Enzymes
The sum of all chemical reactions in the cell Metabolism
The main components of a cell (3) Plasma membrane, Cytoplasm, Nucleus
The components of a plasma membrane (3) Lipid bilayer, Integral proteins, Peripheral proteins
The function of the plasma membrane Provides a barrier against substances outside the cell
Molecules move from a region where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated Simple Diffusion
The simple diffusion of water across a membrane, Water moves from a higher concentration to a lower concentration Osmosis
The mechanism by which particles enter cells Endocytosis
"Cell Eating," Defense mechanism of the host, Many white blood cells carry out this function Phagocytosis
"Cell Drinking," Many cells of the digestive system will use this process to sample the nutrients of the tissue fluid Pinocytosis
The mechanism that moves substances out of the cell, Secretory cells will use this process Exocytosis
The substance that lies internal to the plasma membrane, Consists of cytosol, organelles and inclusions Cytoplasm
Jelly-like fluid in which other cellular elements are suspended, Consists of water, ions and enzymes Cytosol
An organelle constructed of proteins and ribosmoal RNA (rRNA), Site of protein synthesis Ribosomes
The organelle with ribosomes "studding" the external surfaces, Produces proteins and stores ionic calcium Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough ER)
The organelle that consists of tubules, Site of lipid metabolism and stores ionic calcium Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (Smooth ER)
The organelle referred to as the "post office" of the cell, Sorts products of rough ER and sends them to the proper destination Golgi Apparatus
The organelle referred to as the "powerhouse" of the cell, Generates most of the cell's energy (ATP) Mitochondria
The organelle that digests unwanted substances, Membrane-walled sacs containing digestive enzymes Lysosomes
The organelle that breaks down long chains of fatty acids, Membrane- walled sacs of oxidase and catalase enzymes Peroxisomes
The organelle referred to as the "cell skeleton," Serves as the cell's bones, muscles and ligaments Cytoskeleton
The control center and genetic information of the cell Nucleus
"Little nucleus," Center of the nucleus Nucleolus
Tissue that covers the surface of the body or lines a body cavity, Forms most glands Epithelial Tissue
The functions of the epithelium (5) Protection, Absorption, Secretion, Ion transport, Filtration
Tissues with one layer of cells Simple Tissues
Tissues with more than one layer of cells Stratified Tissues
Tissues with cells that are wider than tall (plate-like) Squamous
Tissues with cells that are as wide as tall (cubes) Cuboidal
Tissues with cells that are taller than they are wide (pillar-like) Columnar
Ducts that carry proteins of exocrine glands to epithelial surface or to a body cavity Exocrine Glands
Ductless glands that secrete substances directly into the bloodstream, Produces hormones Endocrine Glands
Created by: amber.whalen



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