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Chapter 25

War and Revolution

Unrestricted Submarine Warfare a type of naval warfare in which submarines sink vessels such as freighters and tankers without warning, as opposed to attacks per prize rules
Total War a war that is unrestricted in terms of the weapons used, the territory or combatants involved, or the objectives pursued, especially one in which the laws of war are disregarded.
Georges Clemenceau a French statesman who led the nation in the First World War, who played a key role in negotiating the Treaty of Versailles (1841-1929)
Versailles Treaty the 1919 peace settlement that ended war between Germany and the Allied powers
Paris Peace Conference, 1919 meeting of the Allies to make negotiations for the Central Powers.
Big Four Important leaders during World War I were David Lloyd George of Great Britain, Vittorio Orlando of Italy, Clemenceau of France, and President Woodrow Wilson.
Western Front The name implied to the fighting zone in France and Flanders, where the British, French, Belgian, and (toward the end of the war) the American armies faced Germany
Schlieffen Plan Based on the theory that Germany would be at war with France and Russia
trench warefare a type of combat in which opposing troops fight from trenches facing each other.
Triple Alliance The alliance of Austia, Germany, and Italy. Italy left the alliance when war broke out in 1914 on the grounds that Austria had launched a war of aggression
Dreadnoughts the predominant type of battleship in the early 20th century
Archduke Franz Ferdinand Heir to Austria-Hungary who was murdered by radical Serbian nationalists. This resulted in Austrian mobilization with the full support of Germany. Soon this was no longer a war in the Balkans, but an entire world war.
Zimmerman Telegram The message came as a coded telegram dispatched by the Foreign Secretary of the German Empire, by _________on January 16, 1917. The message was sent to the German ambassador of Mexico, Heinrich von Eckardt.
Balfour Note 1917 was a letter from the United Kingdom's Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour to Baron Rothschild for transmission to the Zionist Federation of Great Britain and Ireland.
fourteen points a statement given on January 8, 1918 by United States President Woodrow Wilson declaring that World War I was being fought for a moral cause and calling for postwar peace in Europe.
Woodrow Wilson Though he pledged to keep America out of World War I, this president was obliged to declare war on Germany after the resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare in early 1917
"self- determination" is a cardinal principle in modern international law (jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter’s norms
Princip, "Black Hand" assassinator of Arch-duke Franz Ferdinand, member of the Serbian nationalist/terrorist group responsible for the assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand which resulted in the start of World War I
Kaiser Wilhelm II German emperor in World War I; his aggressive foreign policy is often blamed for starting the war.
"blank check" Promise of support from Germany to Austria-Hungary after Ferdinand's assassination; Austria-Hungary sought reprisals against Serbia; one of many events that cascaded into global war.
Central Powers Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire were the chief powers at war with the Allies
Allies (Triple Entente) Name used by countries fighting the Central Powers; major members were Britain, France, Russia, and Italy; later in the war, the United States and Japan joined their cause.
Poison gas Any of various toxic gases, usually used against trenches, used to kill or incapacitate on inhalation; phosgene chlorine, etc.
U-boats A German submarine used in World War I and later in World War II
Zeppelins A large cylindrical German airship used for reconnaissance and bombing, and after the war as passenger transports.
Eastern Front Fighting on the German-Russian, Austro-Russian, and Austro-Romanian fronts.
Created by: birmingham