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CVT Reproductive Sys


Sexual reproduction Process by which organisms produce offspring.
Gametes A reproductive cell or sex cell that contains the haploid set of chromosomes, e.g. spermatozoon sperm cell male reproductive cell and egg cell or ovum female reproductive cell.
Gametes 2 A mature haploid reproductive cell as produced by gametogenesis, a process involving meiosis.
Gametes 3 A cell that fuses with another reproductive cell of the opposite sex during fertilization forming a zygote that develops into a new individual.
Fertilization Penetration of a secondary oocyte by a sperm cell, meiotic division of secondary oocyte to form an ovum, and subsequent union of the gametes.
Gonads Testes in males and ovaries in women.
Ducts Glands providing storage and transport for gametes.
Accessory sex glands Glands that produce substances that protect gametes and facilitate their movement.
Supporting structures Assist the delivery of gametes. In males the penis and in females the uterus
Uterus The site of embryonic growth and fetal development during pregnancy.
Gynecology A specialized branch of medicine in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders of the female reproductive system.
Urology The study of the urinary system and the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders of the male reproductive system.
Andrology A branch of medicine that deals with male disorders, especially infertility and sexual dysfunction.
Meisosis The reproductive cell division that occurs in the gonads (testes and ovaries) which produces gametes in which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half.
Haploid cell Gametes that contain a single set of 23 chromosomes.
Scrotum Supporting structure for the testes.
Testes Paired oval glands in the scrotum which measure 5 cm (2 in.) long and 2.5 cm (1 in.) in diameter.
Tunica vaginalis Partially covers the testes.
Spermatogenesis Production of sperm cells.
Parts of the sperm Head, nucleus, acrosome (junction of head and tail), tail (neck, middle piece, principle piece, end piece).
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone Stimulates gonadotrophs in the anterior pituitary, increasing secretion of Luteinizing hormone (LH) and Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). In females it controls the ovarian and uterine cycles.
Luteinizing hormone Controls Leydig cells, which secrete testosterone.
Follicle-stimulating hormone Stimulates spermatogenesis.
Androgen-binding protein Secretion resulting from FSH and testosterone acting on Sertoli cells.
Effects of androgen Prenatal development, development of male sexual characteristics, development of sexual function, simulation of anabolism.
Epididymis Comma-shaped organ 4 cm (1.5 in) long.
Ductus deferens/vas deferens Conveys sperm during sexual arousal.
Ejaculatory ducts Eject sperm and seminal vesicle secretions just before the release of semen.
Urethra Shared terminal duct of the reproductive and urinary systems in males.
Seminal vesicles Pouch-like structures 5 cm (2 in.) in length
60% Represents the amount of fluid secreted by the seminal vesicles that makes up the volume of semen.
Prostate Single, doughnut-shaped gland the size of a golf ball. Fluid secreted by this gland helps with motility and viability.h
25% Represents a variety of fluids secreted by the prostate that make up the volume of semen.
Bulbourethal glands Pea shaped glands also called Cowper’s glands that secrete alkaline fluids into the urethra which protects passing sperm by neutralizing acids from urine in the urethra.
Semen A mixture of sperm and seminal fluid. 2.5ml at 50 to 150 million sperm per ml.
Infertile (likely) In males, sperm count of below 20 million per ml.
Penis A passageway for the ejaculation of sperm and excretion of urine.
Parts of the penis body. glans penis, root
Ejaculation The powerful release of semen from the urethra.
Ovaries Paired glands resembling unshelled almonds in size and shape which are homologous to the testes.
Uterine tubes Also called the fallopian tube or oviducts they measure 10cm (4in) in length and are the routed for sperm to reach and ovum. They also transport secondary oocytes and fertilized ova from the ovaries to the uterus.
Uterus Part of the pathway for sperm deposited in the vagina to the oviducts. It is also the site of implantation of a fertilized ovum and development of the fetus during pregnancy and labor.
Vagina Tubular fibro-muscular canal lined with mucous membranes approximately 10cm(4 in) long.
Mons pubis An elevation of adipose tissue covered by skin and course pubic hair that cushions the pubic symphysis.
Labia majora Homologous to the scrotum it protects and contains adipose tissue sebaceous and sweat glands.
Labia minora Homologous to the penile urethra it is devoid of hair and fat and contains few sudoriferous glands but abundant in oil glands.
Clitoris Small cylindrical mass.
Mammary glands Composed of nipple, areola and mammary gland their function is to synthesize, secrete and eject milk.( lactation)
Estrogen Secreted by ovarian follicles it promotes the development and maintenance of female reproductive structures.
Functions of Estrogen Promotes developement and maintenance of secondary sex characteristics, adipos tissue in breast, abdomen, mons pubis and hips, voice pitch, broad pelvis, pattern of hair growth on head and body, increase protein anabolism and lowers blood cholesterol.
Menstrual phase Also called menstruation or menses it consists of 50 -150 mL of blood, tissue fluid, mucus and epithelial cells that passes from the uterine cavity through the cervix and vagina to the exterior.
Preovulatory phase The time between the end of menstruation and ovulation. Lasts from 6 –13 days in a 28 day cycle.
Ovulation The rupture of a mature follicle and the release of the secondary oocyte into the pelvic cavity. Usually occurs on day 14 of a 28-day cycle.
Postovulatory phase The time between ovulation and the onset of the next menses. The most constant part of the female reproductive cycle. Day 15 -28.
Created by: DeLew
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