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MCAT Org. Chem Ch. 1

QuestionAnswer
International Union of Pure And Applied Chemistry Has designated standards for naming chemical compounds.
First Step of Naming Chemical Compounds 1. Find the longest carbon chain in the compound that carries the highest priorty functional group (parent chain)
Second Step of Naming Chemical Compounds 2. Number the chain in such a way that the highest-priority functional group receives the lowest possible number to determine the suffix of the molecule.
Third Step of Naming Chemical Compounds 3. Name the substituents with a prefix. Multiple substituents of a single type receive another prefix denoting how many are present (di-, tri-, tetra-)
Fourth Step of Naming Chemical Compounds 4. Assign a number to each of the substituents depending on the carbon to which it is bound.
Fifth Step of Naming Chemical Compounds 5. Complete the name by alphabetizing the substituents and separate numbers from each other by commas and from words by hyphens.
Parent Chain Longest carbon chain in a compound that contains the highest priority functional group.
Note About How Alkanes Are Named They are named according to the numbers of carbons present, followed by the suffix -ane
Methane CH4
Ethane C2H6
Propane C3H8
Butane C4H10
Note About Names For Larger Alkanes Use the Greek root for the number (pentane, hexane, heptane, octane, etc)
Type of Bonds In Alkenes Double bonds
Type of Bonds In Alkynes Triple bonds
Suffix and Naming For Alkenes Substitute -ene for the suffix, and number the double bond with the lower-numbered carbon in the bond.
Suffix and Naming For Alkynes Substitute -yne for the suffix, and number the triple bond with the lower-numbered carbon in the bond.
Alcohols Contain a hydroxyl (-OH) group which substitutes for one or more hydrogens in the hydrocarbon chain
Note On How Alcohols Are Named Substitute the suffix -ol or use the prefix hydroxyl- if a higher priority group is present.
Note About Priority For Alcohols And Bonds Alcohols have higher priority than double or triple bonds and alkanes.
Diols contain 2 hydroxyl groups
Geminal Diols Diols that contain two hydroxyl groups on the same carbon
Vicinal Diols Diols that contain two hydroxyl groups on adjacent carbons.
Carbonyl Group Carbon double-bonded to an oxygen
Aldehydes Have the carbonyl group on a terminal carbon that is attached to a hydrogen atom.
Suffix and Prefix For Aldehydes Suffix: -al, or use the prefix oxo- if a higher-priority group is present.
Ketones Have carbonyl group on a nonterminal carbon
Suffix and Prefix For Aldehydes and Ketones Suffix: -one. Prefix: oxo- if a higher-priorty group is present.
Alternate Prefix For Ketones keto-
Note About Acetone's Significance As A Ketone It is the smallest ketone
Alpha-Carbon Carbon adjacent to the carbonyl carbon
Carboxylic Acids Highest priority functional group because they contain three bonds to oxygen. One comes from a hydroxyl group, and two from a carbonyl group.
Suffix for Carboxylic Acids Suffix: -oic acid
Esters Carboxylic acid derivatives where -OH is replaced with -OR (an alkoxy group)
Suffix And Prefix For Esters Suffix: -oate. Prefix: alkoxycarbonyl-
Amides Replace hydroxyl group of a carboxylic acid with an amino group that may or may not be substituted.
Suffix And Prefix For Amides Suffix: -amid. Prefix: -carbamoyl / amido-
Anhydrides Formed from two carboxylic acids by dehydration. They can be symmetric (two of the same acid), asymmetric (two different acids), or cyclic (intramolecular reaction of a dicarboxylic acid)
Suffix For Anhydrides Suffix: -anhydride in place of acid. If an anhydride is formed from more than one carboxylic acid, both are named in alphabetical order in the name before the word anhydride.
List Of Priority For Functional Groups Carboxylic acid > anhydride > ester > amide > aldehyde > ketone > alcohol > alkene or alkyne > alkane
Created by: SamB91