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Chapter 23

AP Euro - Ideologies and Upheavals

conservatism as a political and social philosophy promotes retaining traditional social institutions in the context of the culture and civilization.
Congress of Vienna Was looking for a balance of power; after the Napoleonic wars the allies saw a need to check French agression
Metternich Prince Klemens von ______ represented Austria at the Congress of Vienna
liberalism is a political philosophy or worldview founded on ideas of liberty and equality.
nationalism is a belief, creed or political ideology that involves an individual identifying with, or becoming attached to, one's nation.
Romanticism a movement in the arts and literature that originated in the late 18th century, emphasizing inspiration, subjectivity, and the primacy of the individual.
socialism A political and economic theory of social organization that advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole.
German Confederation (Bund) was a loose association of 39 German states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire.
legitimacy, compensation, balance of power Plan of Europe
Concert of Europe known as the Congress System after the Congress of Vienna, represented the balance of power that existed in Europe from the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) to the outbreak of World War I (1914).
Quadruple Alliance a treaty signed in Paris on 20 November 1815 by the United Kingdom, Austria, Prussia, and Russia.
Congress System "Concert of Europe"
Carlsbad Diet, 1819 Conference in Carlsbad. Result was the carlsbad decrees.
Tories an American colonist who supported the British side during the American Revolution. (in the UK) a member or supporter of the Conservative Party.
Corn Laws, 1815 in English history, any of the regulations governing the import and export of grain. The laws became politically important during the grain shortage caused by Britain’s growing population and by the blockades imposed in the Napoleonic Wars.
Peterloo Massacre, 1819 in English history, the brutal dispersal by cavalry of a radical meeting held on St. Peter’s Fields in Manchester. The “massacre” attests to the profound fears of the privileged classes of the imminence of violent Jacobin revolution in England.
Decembrist Uprising, 1825 any of the Russian revolutionaries who led an unsuccessful uprising on Dec. 14 (Dec. 26, New Style), 1825, and through their martyrdom provided a source of inspiration to succeeding generations of Russian dissidents.
classical liberalism is a political ideology that values the freedom of individuals — including the freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and markets — as well as limited government.
Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations, 1776 Scottish political economist, had the advantage of judging the significance ol colonies by a rigorous examination based on the colonial experience of 300 years. He strongly disapproved of excessive regulation of colonial trade by parent countries.
David Ricardo, “iron law of wages” English economist who gave systematized, classical form to the rising science of economics in the 19th century. Stated that all attempts to improve the real income of workers were futile and that wages perforce remained near the subsistence level.
Jeremy Bentham, utilitarianism an English philosopher and political radical. He is primarily known today for his moral philosophy, especially his principle of utilitarianism, which evaluates actions based upon their consequences.
John Stuart Mill, On Liberty (1859) advocated Utilitarianism in ethics, Yet he was a champion of individual's rights, calling, among other things, for more power and freedom for women.
Johann Gottfried Herder was a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic. He is associated with the periods of Enlightenment, Sturm und Drang, and Weimar Classicism
Volksgeist perhaps the best known of a family of terms referring to sets of mental, intellectual, moral, and cultural traits that define particular human groups represented as being "nations" or "peoples."
Johann Gottlieb Fichte German philosopher and patriot, one of the great transcendental idealists.
Carbonari (charcoal burners) were groups of secret revolutionary societies founded in early 19th-century Italy.
Greek Revolution rebellion of Greeks within the Ottoman Empire, a struggle which resulted in the establishment of an independent kingdom of Greece.
“Eastern Question” diplomatic problem posed in the 19th and early 20th centuries by the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire, centring on the contest for control of former Ottoman territories.
Treaty of Adrianople, 1829 it strengthened the Russian position in eastern Europe and weakened that of the Ottoman Empire.
Revolutions of 1830 rebellions against conservative kings and governments by liberals and revolutionaries in different parts of Europe in 1830–32.
July Revolution insurrection that brought Louis-Philippe to the throne of France. The revolution was precipitated by Charles X’s publication (July 26) of restrictive ordinances contrary to the spirit of the Charter of 1814.
Louis Philippe, “Bourgeoisie King” king of the French from 1830 to 1848; basing his rule on the support of the upper bourgeoisie, he ultimately fell from power because he could not win the allegiance of the new industrial classes.
Giuseppe Mazzini Genoese propagandist and revolutionary, founder of the secret revolutionary society Young Italy (1832), and a champion of the movement for Italian unity known as the Risorgimento.
Young Italy a political movement founded in 1831 by Giuseppe Mazzini. The goal of this movement was to create a united Italian republic through promoting a general insurrection in the Italian reactionary states and in the lands occupied by the Austrian Empire.
Risorgimento an ideological and literary movement that helped to arouse the national consciousness of the Italian people, and it led to a series of political events that freed the Italian states from foreign domination and united them politically.
Zollverein a coalition of German states formed to manage tariffs and economic policies within their territories. Organised by the 1833 Zollverein treaties, the Zollverein formally came into existence on 1 January 1834.
Whigs a member of the British reforming and constitutional party that sought the supremacy of Parliament and was eventually succeeded in the 19th century by the Liberal Party. an American colonist who supported the American Revolution.
Earl Grey Name for a type of tea. Ex-Prime Minister of the U.K
Reform Bill of 1832 This was a response to many years of people criticising the electoral system as unfair.
Factory Act of 1831 a series of Acts passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom to regulate the conditions of industrial employment.
William Wilberforce an English politician, philanthropist, and a leader of the movement to abolish the slave trade.
Mines Act, 1842 commonly known as the Mines Act of 1842, was an act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It prohibited all females and boys under ten years old from working underground in coal mines.
Chartists a working-class movement for political reform in Britain which existed from 1838 to 1858.
Anti-Corn Law League British organization founded in 1839, devoted to fighting England’s Corn Laws, regulations governing the import and export of grain. It was led by Richard Cobden, who saw the laws as both morally wrong and economically damaging.
Revolutions of 1848 eries of republican revolts against European monarchies, beginning in Sicily, and spreading to France, Germany, Italy, and the Austrian Empire. They all ended in failure and repression, and were followed by widespread disillusionment among liberals.
February Revolution (known as such because of Russia's use of the Julian calendar) begins on this day in 1917, when riots and strikes over the scarcity of food erupt in Petrograd (now St. Petersburg)
Second French Republic French republic established after the Revolution of 1848 toppled the July monarchy of King Louis-Philippe. The liberal republicans’ hopes of establishing an enduring democratic regime were soon frustrated
“June Days” Revolution in French history, a brief and bloody civil uprising in Paris in the early days of the Second Republic. The new government instituted numerous radical reforms, but the new assembly, composed mainly of moderate and conservative candidates,
Giuseppe Garibaldi Italian patriot and soldier of the Risorgimento, a republican who, through his conquest of Sicily and Naples with his guerrilla Redshirts, contributed to the achievement of Italian unification under the royal House of Savoy.
Magyars A nation and an ethnic group native to and primarily associated with Hungarian people.
Louis Kossuth political reformer who inspired and led Hungary’s struggle for independence from Austria. His brief period of power in the revolutionary years of 1848 and 1849, however, was ended by Russian armies.
Bohemia is a historical country of Central Europe, occupying the western two-thirds of the traditional Czech lands. I
Prague Conference, Austroslavism was a political concept and program aimed to solve problems of Slavic peoples in the Austrian Empire.
Frankfurt Parliament was the first freely elected parliament for all of Germany, elected on 1 May 1848
Frederick William IV king of Prussia from 1840 until 1861, whose conservative policies helped spark the Revolution of 1848.
“Humiliation of Olmutz” Agreement of Olmütz, was a treaty between Prussia and Austria, dated 29 November 1850, by which Prussia abandoned the Erfurt Union and accepted the revival of the German Confederation under Austrian leadership
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Social Contract is a book in which Rousseau theorized about the best way to establish a political community in the face of the problems
Immanuel Kant German philosopher whose comprehensive and systematic work in epistemology (the theory of knowledge), ethics, and aesthetics greatly influenced all subsequent philosophy, especially the various schools of Kantianism and idealism.
sturm and drang German literary movement of the late 18th century that exalted nature, feeling, and human individualism and sought to overthrow the Enlightenment cult of Rationalism. Goethe and Schiller began their careers as prominent members of the movement.
George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel German philosopher who developed a dialectical scheme that emphasized the progress of history and of ideas from thesis to antithesis and thence to a synthesis.
dialectic the art of investigating or discussing the truth of opinions.
William Wordsworth a major English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their joint publication Lyrical Ballads
Samuel Taylor Coleridge English lyrical poet, critic, and philosopher. His Lyrical Ballads, written with William Wordsworth, heralded the English Romantic movement, .... is the most significant work of general literary criticism produced in the English Romantic period.
Lord Byron was an English poet and a leading figure in the Romantic movement.
Percy Bysshe Shelley one of the major English Romantic poets, and is regarded by some critics as amongst the finest lyric poets in the English language.
Grimm’s Fairy Tales is a collection of German fairy tales first published in 1812 by the Grimm brothers, Jacob and Wilhelm
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe German poet, playwright, novelist, scientist, statesman, theatre director, critic, and amateur artist, considered the greatest German literary figure of the modern era.
Victor Hugo poet, novelist, and dramatist who was the most important of the French Romantic writers.
Caspar David Friedrich A 19th-century German Romantic landscape painter, generally considered the most important German artist of his generation
Eugene Delacroix a French Romantic artist regarded from the outset of his career as the leader of the French Romantic school
Théodore Géricault painter who exerted a seminal influence on the development of Romantic art in France. Géricault was a dandy and an avid horseman whose dramatic paintings reflect his flamboyant and passionate personality.
J.M.W. Turner English Romantic landscape painter whose expressionistic studies of light, colour, and atmosphere were unmatched in their range and sublimity.
John Constable was an English Romantic painter. Born in Suffolk, he is known principally for his landscape paintings of Dedham Vale, the area surrounding his home—now known as "Constable Country"—which he invested with an intensity of affection
British Houses of Parliament British+(Place where people live)+Parliament
Ludwig van Beethoven German composer, the predominant musical figure in the transitional period between the Classical and Romantic eras.
Frédéric Chopin was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist of the Romantic era, who wrote primarily for the solo piano
Franz Liszt Hungarian piano virtuoso and composer. Among his many notable compositions are his 12 symphonic poems, two (completed) piano concerti, several sacred choral works, and a great variety of solo piano pieces.
Anton Dvořák first Bohemian composer to achieve worldwide recognition, noted for turning folk material into the language of 19th-century Romantic music.
Giuseppe Verdi leading Italian composer of opera in the 19th century, noted for operas such as Rigoletto (1851), Il trovatore (1853), La traviata (1853), ...
Richard Wagner German dramatic composer and theorist whose operas and music had a revolutionary influence on the course of Western music, either by extension of his discoveries or reaction against them.
Peter Tchaikovsky The most popular Russian composer of all time. His music has always had great appeal for the general public in virtue of its tuneful, open-hearted melodies, impressive harmonies, and colourful, picturesque orchestration
Gothic revival architecture is part of the mid-19th century picturesque and romantic movement in architecture, reflecting the public's taste for buildings inspired by medieval design.
Henri de Saint-Simon French social theorist and one of the chief founders of Christian socialism.
Louis Blanc French utopian socialist, noted for his theory of worker-controlled “social workshops.”
Pierre Joseph Proudhon French libertarian socialist and journalist whose doctrines became the basis for later radical and anarchist theory.
Charles Fourier French social theorist who advocated a reconstruction of society based on communal associations of producers known as phalanges (phalanxes). His system came to be known as Fourierism.
Karl Marx revolutionary, sociologist, historian, and economist. Wrote the Communist Manifesto.
Friedrich Engels German socialist philosopher, the closest collaborator of Karl Marx in the foundation of modern communism. They coauthored The Communist Manifesto (1848), and ____ edited the second and third volumes of Das Kapital after Marx’s death.
The Communist Manifesto, 1848 pamphlet written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels to serve as the platform of the Communist League. It became one of the principal programmatic statements of the European socialist and communist parties in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
dialectical materialism is a philosophy of science and nature, based on the writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, and developed largely in Russia and the Soviet Union.
Created by: Jrod42