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AP Human Geo Unit 5

Agriculture Vocab

TermDefinition
agrarian characteristic of farmers or their way of life
agribusiness highly mechanized, large-scale farming, usually under corporate ownership
agricultural landscape the cultural landscape of agricultural areas
agriculture location model deals with both the location - allocation process of land uses by farmers, and the spatial organization of agricultural land uses
agriculture the cultivation of domesticated crops and the raising of domesticated animals
animal domestication animals kept for some useful purpose whose breeding is controlled by humans and whose survival is dependent on humans; differ genetically and behaviorally from wild animals.
aquaculture the cultivation of aquatic organisms (as fish or shellfish) especially for food
biotechnology any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use
collective farm agricultural organization where farm laborers are not compensated with wages, instead they receive a share of the farm’s net productivity. The Soviet Union undertook the world’s first campaign of mass collectivization from 1929-1933.
commercial agriculture large scale farming and ranching operations that have vast land bases, large mechanized equipment, factory-type labor forces, and the latest technology.
intensive agriculture putting much labor and capital into a piece of land to increase the rate at which goods are produced or work is completed
extensive agriculture use of little labor and capital to increase agricultural productivity
dairying an agricultural business for raising female cattle, goats, or other lactating livestock for long-term production of milk, which may be either processed on-site or transported to a dairy for processing and retail sale
debt-for-nature swap an agreement between a developing nation in debt and one or more of its creditors to forgive debts in return for the promise of environmental protection
double cropping a second crop is planted after the first has been harvested
primary activities the extraction of natural resources, such as agriculture, lumbering and mining
secondary activities the processing of raw materials into finished products; manufacturing
tertiary activities associated with providing services — such as transportation, banking, retailing, education, and routine office-based jobs
quaternary activities service sector industries concerned with the collection, processing and manipulation of information and capital. Examples include finance, administration, insurance and legal services.
quinary activities service sector industries that require a high level of specialized knowledge or technical skill. Examples include scientific research and high-level management.
environmental modification changes made to the environment - like the use of pesticides to grow crops and the effect that has on the soil and environment; soil erosion and desertification caused by changes made to the environment.
shifting cultivation cultivation of crops in tropical forest areas in which the forest vegetation has been removed by cutting and burning. Also known as slash-and-burn agriculture.
nomadic herding/pastoralism the continual movement of livestock in search of forage for animals
feedlot a factory like farm devoted to either livestock fattening or dairying; all feed is imported and no crops are grown on the farm
first agricultural revolution dating back 10,000 years, it achieved plant domestication and animal domestication
Green Revolution the introduction of high-yield crops and chemical fertilizers and pesticides into traditional Asian agricultural systems, most notably paddy rice farming, with increases in production and ecological damage
hunting and gathering the killing of wild game and the harvesting of wild plants to provide food in traditional cultures
intensive subsistence agriculture farming to supply the minimum food and materials necessary to survive
livestock ranching a commercial type of agriculture that produces fattened cattle and hogs for meat
market gardening small-scale production of fruits, vegetables and flowers as cash crops, frequently sold directly to consumers and restaurants. It is distinguishable from other types of farming by the diversity of crops grown on a small area of land or in greenhouses
Mediterranean agriculture accounts for virtually all olive oil produced worldwide, 60% of wine production, 45% of grape production, 25% of dried nuts (mostly almonds, chestnuts, and walnuts), 20% of citrus production, and about 12% of total cereal production.
paddy rice farming the cultivation of rice on a paddy, or small flooded field enclosed by mud dikes, practiced in the humid areas of the Far East
planned economy economic system where single agency makes all decisions about production and allocation of goods/services; state/government controls factors of production and makes all decisions about their use and distribution of income; also known as a command economy
plant domestication deliberately planted and tended by humans; genetically distinct from its wild ancestors as a result of selective breeding
plantation agriculture a system of monoculture (growth of a single crop like cotton) for producing export crops requiring relatively large amounts of land and capital; originally dependent on slave labor
nonrenewable a resource that must be depleted to be used, such as petroleum
dispersed a type of settlement form where people live relatively distant from each other
nucleated a relatively dense settlement form
Carl Sauer conducted pioneering research on the origins and dispersal of plant and animal domestication. He believed that domestication did not develop in response to hunger.
Second agricultural revolution dovetailing with and benefiting from the Industrial Revolution, it witnessed improved methods of cultivation, harvesting, and storage of farm produce
suitcase farm in American commercial grain agriculture, a farm on which no one lives; planting and harvesting is done by hired migratory crews
longlots distinct regional approach to land surveying found in Atlantic Canada, Quebec, Louisiana, and Texas whereby land is divided into narrow parcels stretching back from rivers, roads, and canals
metes and bounds system of land surveying east of the Appalachian Mountains - relies on descriptions of land and natural features such as streams or trees. Because it was imprecise, the U.S. Land Office Survey abandoned the technique for the rectangular survey system.
township-and-range a rectangular land division scheme designed by Thomas Jefferson to disperse settlers evenly across farmlands of the U.S. interior, also called rectangular survey system
Third agricultural revolution (mechanization, chemical farming, food manufacturing) currently in progress, it has as its principal orientation the development of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs).
“Tragedy of the commons” class of social trap that involves a conflict over resources between individual interests and the common good. Originally from a parable published by William Forster Lloyd in his 1833 book on population
Transhumance a seasonal regular movement of pastoralists (livestock raisers) and their livestock between highland and lowland pastures.
Truck farm commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because the word was a Middle English word meaning bartering or the exchange of commodities
Von Thünen, Johann Heinrich German scholar-farmer, developed core-periphery model (economic determinism). Proposed an “isolated state” - no trade with outside world; possessed only one market, located centrally in the state; had uniform soil, climate, and level terrain.
Created by: kspitts