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A&P2 Ch18:Heart&CV

Heart and Cardiovascular System

Mediastinum Location of the heart; Also contains great vessels, thymus, & esophagus
Pericardial Cavity The Heart is surrounded by serous, fluid-filled, space called...
Pericardial Cavity Acts as a lubricant to reduce friction as the heart beats
Pericarditis Infection of inflammation of the pericardium
Cardiac Tamponade Accumulation of additional fluids that restrict movements of the heart
Endocardium Simple squamous layer of heart wall; underlying areolar CT
Myocardium Cardiac muscle tissue; Wrap atria & encircle great vessels at top of heart
Epicardium Covers surface of heart; aka Visceral Pericardium
Pericardial Sac Fibrous & areolar CT lined by parietal pericardium
Cardiac Muscle Fibers Striated alignments of sarcomeres; Single nucleus; Intercalated discs
Intercalated Discs Specialized connections; Strong connections made by desosomes; Contains Gap Junctions
Desosomes Strong intercellular connection
Gap Junctions Passes electrical impulses from cell to cell so cells can work in unison
L & R Atria L & R Ventricles The 4 chambers of the heart?...
L & R Atria Receives blood returning to the heart; Thin walled
L & R Ventricle Contract to push blood from heart to arteries
Septa General term to divide the heart into L & R sides
Interatrial Septum The division between the L & R Atria
Interventricular Septum The division between the L & R Ventricle
R Atrium Receives Deoxygenated blood from systemic circuit
L Atrium Receives oxygenated blood from pulmonary circuit
Coronary Sulcus Deep, fat-filled groove that divides between atria and ventricles
Ligamentum Arteriosum Remnant of fetal connection between aorta and pulmonary trunk
Coronary Sinus Holds blood pushed out of myocardium during ventricular systole, the returns blood to the R. Atrium
Ventricular systole(contraction) > Aorta distends as blood is ejected by the L. Ventricle > Ventricle relaxes > Aorta decreases in pressure and walls recoil > Elastic rebound of aorta pushes blood through systemic circulation. Describe Coronary Circulation
Semilunar Valves Prevents backflow of blood to ventricles from aorta & pulmonary trunk during ventricular diastole (relaxation)
Atrioventricular Valves Prevents backflow of blood during ventricular systole (contraction)
Sup. & Inf. Venae Cava & Coronary Sinus > R. Atrium > R. Atrioventricular/Tricuspid Valve > R. Ventricle > Pulmonic Semilunar Valve > Pulmonary Trunk > L. & R. Pulmonary Arteries > Lungs > Pulmonary Veins > L. Atrium > L. Atrioventricular/Bicuspid/Mitral Give the correct order of blood flow: (whole process did not fit...)
Arteriosclerosis Thickening/hardening of arterial walls
Atherosclerosis Accumulation of fatty cholesterol deposits on arterial walls
Ischemia Reduced blood supply to myocardium
All 4 chambers relaxed > Atrial Systole > Ventricular Systole (2 phases) > Early Ventricular Diastole > Later Ventricular Diastole > Chambers relax again List the process of the Cardiac Cycle
Atrial Systole in Cardiac Cycle -Pushes in the last 30 % of blood to fill ventricle -End of Atrial Systole = Atrial Diastole -Beginning of ventricular systole simultaneously
Ventricular systole in Cardiac Cycle (2 phases) Isovolumetric Contraction & Ventricular Ejection
Isovolumetric Contraction -Increases pressure to close the AV valves -Semilunar valves still closed & blood volume in ventricles stays the same
Ventricular Ejection Pressure rises above pressure in pulmonary & aorta so that the semilunar valves open & blood is ejected from the heart
P Wave Atrial depolarization, initiated by the SA node
QRS Complex Ventricular depolarization begins at apex leading to the atrial repolarization to occur
T Wave Ventricular repolarization begins at the apex
Parasympathetic Stimulation of the Intrinsic Rate -Decreases rate of depolarization -Usually predominates -Resting HR is slower than intrinsic rate
Sympathetic Stimulation of the Intrinsic Rate Increases rate of depolarization
Medulla Oblongata Balance of parasympathetic/sympathetic stimulation is determined by the cardioinhibitory and cardioacceleratory centers in?....
Bradycardia Condition in which the heart rate is slower than normal
Tachycardia Indicates faster than normal heart rate
SA node Determines the rhythm of the heart
Cardiac Output The product of Stroke Volume multiplied by the Heart Rate
Stroke Volume The amount of blood ejected from a ventricle during ventricular systole
Epinephrine & Thyroxine 2 Hormones that increase HR
Ventricular Diastole OR Relaxation of the Ventricular Syncytium Physically occurs to cause the T wave on an ECG
Ventricular Repolarization OR Repolarization of the Ventricular Syncytium Electrically occurs to cause the T wave on an ECG
Ventricular Systole OR Contraction of the Ventricular Syncytium Physically occurs in the heart simultaneously as the QRS complex
Created by: JSpeaker08



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