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LOM 18

Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Adrenal Cortex Outer section (cortex) of each adrenal gland; secretes cortisol. aldosterone, and sex hormones
Adrenal Medulla Inner section (medulla) of each adrenal gland; secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
Ovaries Located in the lower abdomen of a female; responsible for egg production and estrogen and progesterone secrection
Pancreas Located behind the stomach. Islet (alpha and beta) cells (islets of Langehans) secrete hormones from the pancreas. Also contains cells with exocrine function. Secrete enzymes, via a duct into the small intestine to aid digestion.
parathyroid gland four small glands on the posterior of the thyroid gland. Some people have 3 or 5.
Pituitary gland (hypophysis) located at the base of the brain in the sella turcica; composed of an anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) and posterior lobe (neurohypophysis). Weighs 1/16 ounce and 1/2 in across
Testes two glands enclosed in the scrotal sac of a male; repsonsible for sperm production and testosterone secretion.
Thyroid gland located in the neck on either side of the trachea; secretes thryroxine.
Adrenaline (epinephrine) Secreted by the adrenal medulla; increase heart rate and blood pressure
Adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH) secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland (adenohypophysis); AKA adrenocorticotropin. ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex
aldosterone secreted by the adrenal cortex; increase salt (sodium) reabsorption
Androgen male hormone secreted by the testes and to a lesser extent by the adrenal cortex; example: testosterone
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland (neurohypophysis).ADH vasopressin inscreases reabsorption of water by the kideny
Calcitonin secreted by the thyroid gland; decreases blood calcium leels
cortisol secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX; increases blood sugar. It is secreted in times of stress and has an anti-inflammatory efffect.
epinephrine (adrenaline) secreted by adrenal medulla; increase heart rate and blood pressure and dilates airway (sympathomimetic); fight or flight
estradiol estrogen (female hormone) secreted by ovaries
estrogen female hormone secreted by the ovaries and to a lesser extent by the adrenal cortex. Estradiol and estrone.
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland (adenohypophysis) FSH stimulates hormone secretion and egg production by ovaries and sperm in testes.
glucagon secreted by alpha islet cells of pancreas; increase blood sugar by conversion of glycogen (starch) to glucose
growth hormone (GH); somatotropin secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitay gland (adenohypophysis);stimulates growth of bone and soft tissues
insulin secreted by beta islet cells of the pancreas. Helps glucose pass into cells, and it promotes the conversion of glucose to glycogen
luteinizing hormone (LH) secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland (adenohypophysis); stimulates ovulation in females and secretion of testosterone in males
norepinephrine secreted by adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure (sympathomimetic). Nor- in chemistry means a parent compound from which another is derived.
oxytocin (OT) secreted by posterior lobe of the pituitary gland (neurohypophysis); stimulates contraction of the uterus during labor and childbirth.
parathormone (PTH) secreted by the parathyroid glands; increases blood calcium
progesterone secreted by ovaries; prepares uterus for pregnancy
prolactin(PRL) SECRETED BY ANTERIOR LOBE OF THE PITUITARY GLAND (ADENOHYPOPHYSIS) ; promotes milk secretion
somatropin (STH) secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland (adenohypophysis); growth hormone
testosterone male hormone secreted by testes
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH); thyrotropin secreted by anterior lobe of the pituitary gland (adenohypophysis); acts on the thyroid gland to promte its function. NOT SECRETED BY THYROID GLAND
THYROXINE(T4) secreted by thyroid gland; aka tetraiodothyronine. increase metabolism in cells.
triiodothyronine (T3) secreted by thyroid gland; increases metabolism in cells. The extra n in -thyronine avoids the combiatio of two vowels (o and i)
vasopressin secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland (neurohypophysis); antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
catecholamines hormones derived from an amino acid and secreted by the adrenal medulla. EPINEPHRINE
cotricosteroids hormones (steroids) produced by the adrenal cortex. Examples are cortisol (raises sugar levels), aldosterone (raises salt reabsorption by kidneys), and androgens and estrogens
electrolyte mineral salt found in the blood and tissues and necessary for proper function of cells; potassium, sodium, and calcium are electrolytes.
glucocorticoid steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates glucose,fat,protein metabolism. cortisol raises blood sugar and is part of the stress response.
homeostasis tendency of an organism to maintain a constant internal environment
hormone substance, secreted by and endocrine gland, that travels through the blood to a distant organ or gland where it influences the structure or function of that organ or gland.
hypothalamus region of the brain lying below the thalamus and above the pituitary gland. it secretes releasing factors and hormones that affect the pituitary gland
mineralocorticoid steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex to regulate mineral salts(electrolytes) and eater balance in the body. Aldosterone
receptor cellular or nuclear protein that binds to a hormone so that a response can be elicited
sella turcica cavity in the skill that contains the pituitary gland
sex hormones steroids (androgens and estrogens) produced by the adrenal cortex to influence male and female sexual characteristics
steroid complex substance related to fats (derived from sterol, such as choleterol), and of which many hormones are made. Estrogens, androgens, glucocorticoids, and mineralcorticoids. Ster/o =solid; -ol=oil
sympathomimetic pertaining to mimicking or copying the effect of the sympathetic nervous system. Adrenaline is a sympathomimetic hormone (raises blood pressure and heart rate and dilates airways)
target tissue cells of an organ that are affected or stimulated by specific hormones.
Created by: zombiewho