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BIOL 2402 CHP.19/18

BIOL 2402 CHP.19

ABO Blood Group Blood-type classification based on the presence or absence of A and B glycoprotiens on the erythrocyte membrane surface.
Agglutination Clustering of cells into masses linked by antibodies
Agranular Leukocytes Leukocytes with few granules in their cytoplasm EX: Monocytes ,Lymphocytes
Albumin 54%, osmotic pressure of blood along w/ Na+ blood buffer
Anemia Deficiency of red blood cells or hemoglobin
Antibodies (Immunoglobins or Gamma Globulins) antigen-specific protiens produced by specialized B lymphocytes that protect the body by binding to foreign objects such as bacteria and viruses
Anticoagulant substance such as heparin that opposes coagulation
antithrombin anticogulant that inactivates facator X and opposes the conversion of prothrombin (factor II) into thrombin in the common pathway
B Lymphocytes (B Cells) lymphocyes that defend the body against specific pathogens and thereby provide specfic immunity
Basophils WBC; less that 0.5-1% in blood; Has Granules(deep blue); Release chemicals that medicate inflammation and allergic respones
Bilirubin Yellowish bile pigment produced when iron removed from heme and is further broken down into waste products
Biliverdin Green bile pigment produced when the non-iron portion of heme is degraded into a waste product; converted to bilirubin in the liver
Blood Liquid connective tissue composed of formed elements - erythocytes, leukocytes, and platelets - and a fluid extracellular matrix called plasma; component of the cardiovascular system
Bone Marrow Biopsy Diagnostic test of a sample of red bone marrow
Bone Marrow Transplant Treeatment in which a donor's healthy bone marrow with its stem cells replaces diseased or damages bone marrow of a patient
Buffy Coat Thin,pale layer of leukocytes and platelets that separates the erythrocytes from the plasma in a sample of centrifu
Carbaminohemoglobin Compound of carbon dioxide and hemobglobin, and one of the ways in which carbon dioxide is carried in the blood
Clotting Factors Group of 12 identified substances active in coagulation
Coagulation Formation of a blood clot; part of the process of hemostasis
Colony-Stimulating Factors(CSFs) Glycoproteins that trigger the proliferation and differenation of myeloblasts into grammer leukocytes EX: Basophils, Neutrophils, and Eosinophils
Common Pathway Final Coagulation pathway activated either by the intrinsic or the extrinsic pathway, and ending in the formation of a blood clot
Cross Matching Blood test for for identification of blood type using antibodies and small samples of blood
Cytokines Class of proteins that act as autocrine or paracrine signaling molcules; in the cardiovascular system, they stimulate the proliferation of progenitor cells and help to stimulate both nonspecific and specifc resistance to disease
Defensins Antimicrobial proteins released from neutrophils and macrophages that create openings in the plasma membranes to kill cells
Deoxyhemoglobin Molecule of hemoglobin w/o an oxygen molecule bound to it
Diapedesis (Emigration) process by which leukocytes squeeze through adjacent cells in a blood vessel wall to enter tissue
Embolus Thrombus that has broken free from the blood vessel wall and entered the circulation
Emigration (Diapedesis) process by which leukocytes squeeze through adjacent cells in a blood vessel wall to enter tissue
Eosinophil WBC; 1-4% in blood ; Has Granules(deep red); Destroy invaders(antibody-coated parasites)
Erythrocyte RBC; transports oxygen and carbon dioxide; composed mostly of hemoglobin; mature myeloid blood cells
Erythroproietin(EPO) Glycoprotein that triggers the bone marrow to produce RBCs; secreted by the kidney in response to low oxygen levels
Extrinsic Pathway Initial coagulation pathway that begins with tissue damage and results in the activation of common pathway
Ferritin Protein-containing storage form of iron found in the bone marrow, liver, and spleen
Fibrin Insoluble, filamentous protein that forms the structure of a blood clot
Fibrinogen Plasma protein; 7%, produced in the liver and involved in blood clotting
Fibrinolysis Gradual degradation of a blood clot
Formed Elements Cellular components of blood; that is erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets
Globin Heme-containing globular protein that is constituent of hemoglobin
Globulins Plasma Protein; 30%, protein that binds to lipids and fat solute vitamins
Granular Leukocytes Leukocytes w/ abundant granules in their cytoplasm EX: neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
Hematocrit Volume percentage of erythrocytes in a sample of centrifuged blood
Heme Red, iron-containing pigment to which oxygen binds in hemoglobin
Hemecytoblast Hemopietic stem cell that gives rise to the formed elements of blood
Hemoglobin Oxygen in blood that gives it is red color
Hemolysis Destruction(lysis) of erythrocytes and the release of their hemoglobin into circulation
Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn(HDN) (Erythroblastosis Fetalis) disorder causing agglutination and hemolysis in an Rh+ fetus or newborn of an Rh- mother
Hemophilia Genetic disorder characterized by inadequate synthesis of clotting factors
Hemopoiesis Production of the formed elements of blood
Hemopoietic Growth Factors Chemical signals including erythropoietin, thrombopoietin, colony-stimulating factors and interleukins that regulate the differentiation and proliferation of particular blood progenitor cells
Hemopoietic Stem Cell Type of pluripotent stem cell that gives rise to the formed elements of blood(hemocytoblasts)
Hemorrhage Excessive bleeding
Hemosiderin Protein-containing storage form of iron found in the bone marrow, liver, and spleen
Hemostasis Physiological process by which bleeding ceases
Heparin Short-Acting anticoagulant stored in mast cells and released when issues are injured, opposes prothrombin
Hypoxemia Below- normal level of oxygen saturation of blood (typically<95%)
Interleukins Signaling molecules that may function in hemopoiesis, inflammation, and specific immune response
Intrinsic Pathway Initial coagulation pathway that begins w/ vascular damage or contact w/ foreign substances, and results in the activation of the common path
Leukemia Cancer involving leukocytes
Leukocyte WBCs
Leukocytosis Excessive leukocyte proliferation
Leukopenia Below-Normal production of leukocytes
Lymphocytes WBC; 20-35% in blood; no granules; specific responses to invaders including antibody production
Lymphoid Stem Cell Type of hemopoietic stem cells that gives rise to lymphocytesm including various T cells, B Cells, and NK cells, all of which function in immunity
Lymphoma Form of cancer in which masses of malignant T and/or B lymphocytes collect in lymph nodes, the spleen, the liver, and other tissues
Lysozyme Digestive enzymes w/ bacterial properties
Macrophage Phagocytic cell of the myeloid lineage; a mature monocyte
Megakaryocyte Bone marrow cell that produces platelets
Memory Cell Type of B or T lymphocyte that forms after exposure to a pathogen
Monocyte 3-8% in blood; WBC; no granules; ingest and destroy invaders and antigen presentation
Myeloid Stem Cells RBCs and WBCs
Natural Killer (NK) Cells Cytotoxic lymphocytes capable of recognizing cells that do not express "self" proteins on their plasma membrane or that contain foreign or abnormal markers; provides generalized, nonspecific immunity
Neutrophils WBC; 50-70% in blood ; has granules(fine; light pink to light purple) ; ingest and destroy invaders
Created by: jazzygirl



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