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Science Study Guide

A Study Guide

Atom Smallest particle of an element that has the properties of that element. Consists of a nucleuscontaining a proton, neutron, and electrons orbiting the nucleus.
Protons Positively charged particle that is part of an atom’s nucleus
Electrons Negatively charged particle that is found outside the nucleus of an atom.
Electricity Charge, negative or positive.
Electric Field Volume of space around a charge (or object) where electric force is exerted on othercharges (or objects)
Contact Electrification Creating a charge imbalance by the contact of two different insulating surfaces Friction,which means rubbing, is one example of contact electrification.
Conduction Creating charge imbalance within an object touches another object causing the transfer ofelectrons from one object to the other. Requires direct contact.
Induction Creating a charge imbalance within an object that is caused by the presence of th electricfield of another object.
Law ofConservationof Charge If a negative net charge is created, an equal but opposite net is charges is also created. Charge is neither created not destroyed.
Current The flow or movement of charge. Slow, about 8.5 cm/hour.
Circuit Diagram Arrangement of symbols used to represent components of a circuit.
Short Circuit Complete path through which current can flow.
Circuit Complete path through which current can flow.
Resistance Measure of how difficult it is for charges to flow through a material.
Resistor Device that resists the flow of charge. Extracts energy from the circuit and slows downcurrent flow.
Conductor Material that contains moveable charge. Electrons exist in a moveable sea.Analogy to a water filled pipe.
Insulator Material in which charges are relatively immobile.Analogy to ice filled pipe.
AC Alternating current circuit. Circuit in which current alternates the direction in which it flows.
DC Direct current circuit. Circuit in which current flows in only one direction.
Voltage Difference in electric potential energy.Results from the differences in net charge between two points in an electric field. Providesthe “push” for electric current to flow. Generated by energy sources such as batteries andgenerators.
Cell Causes electric charge to flow (due to voltage of the cell). Does not create charge.
Battery Two or more cells in series.
Electrode Conductor through which current enters/leaves a battery or cell
Electrolyte Liquid or paste where the electrons flow.
Series Electric circuit with a single path.
Parallel Electric circuit with multiple paths or branches.
Created by: MOrgMei
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