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NHOH HM Manual CH 6

NAVEDTRA 14295B Ch 6: Human Anatomy and Physiology

QuestionAnswer
When the body is in the anatomical position, the thumbs point? Laterally
A person lying on his/her back is in what position? Supine
The physical and chemical breakdown of the food we eat is called? Digestion
The transfer of fluids across the plasma membrane of a cell from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration is a process known as? Diffusion
Homeostasis is defined as? Self-regulated control of the body’s internal environment
That portion of a cell containing all the genetic material important in the cell’s reproduction is called the? Nucleus
The secretion of digestive fluids and the absorption of digested foods and liquids is the chief function of which tissue? Columnar
The body’s primary thermo-regulatory action is a function of dilating and contracting blood vessels and the? Sweat glands
Which of the following are the two most prominent mineral elements of bone? Phosphorus and calcium
The bones of the wrist are classified as which of the following bones? Short
Bones of the cranium include what? Occipital
The axial skeleton is composed of which two regions of the skeletal system? Skull and vertebral column
The upper three ribs on each side are known as what types? True Ribs
The concavity into which the head of the humerus articulates is called the? Glenoid fossa
The innominate bone is composed of three parts that are united in adults to form a cuplike structure called the? Acetabelum
The prominence easily felt on the inner and outer aspects of the ankle are called? Medial and lateral malleolus
Bones that develop within a tendon are known as...? Sesamoid
Moving an extremity away from the body is called? Abduction
The act of straightening a limb in known as? Extension
The primary function of the muscles does not include... Producing red blood cells
Which of the following properties describes the ability of muscles to respond to a stimulus? Irritability
The ability of muscles to regain their original form when stretched is known as? Elasticity
Actin and myosin are two protein substances involved in? Muscle contraction
If a generally sedentary person in less than good physical health enters a marathon with the intent to complete the race, which of the following outcomes can he/she be expected to encounter? He/she runs the risk of muscle damage
Intramuscular injections are frequently given in which upper extremity muscles? Deltoid
Intramuscluar injections are usually given in which lower extremity muscles? Gluteus maximus
The total blood volume in the average adult is in what range? 5 to 6 liters
A decreased red blood cell (RBC) count could be the result of a medical condition affecting the? Red marrow
A white blood cell (WBC) count of 18,000 may indicate what condition? Infection
In an accident victim suffering from a fibrinogen deficiency, the rescuer may have difficulty performing which of the actions listed below? Controlling hemorrhage
In addition to preventing excessive blood loss, the formation of a blood clot serves which, if any, of the following purposes? To form the foundation for new tissue growth
The valves of the heart include all of the following EXCEPT? Vagus
Oxygenated blood is carried by which vein(s)? Pulmonary
The contraction phase of the heart is.... Systole
The pulse pressure is the difference between which of the following measurement? Systole and diastole
The venous system that carries digested materials from the intestinal tract is called the? Portal
Lymph nodes do not participate in.... Manufacture of the white blood cells
Windpipe is another term for? Trachea
The primary muscle of respiration is known as the? Diaphragm
Of the following nerves, which, if any, controls the larynx during the process of breathing? Vagus
A nerve, cell, or neuron is not composed of a.... Synapse
The impulse receptors of a nerve are called? Dendrites
The space through which a nerve impulse passes from one neuron to another is called a/an? Synapse
Balance, coordination or movement, and harmony of motion are functions of what part of the brain? Cerebellum
Circulation and respiration are controlled primarily from what area of the brain? Medulla
The meninges, which cover the outer portion of the brain and spinal cord are composed of all the following EXCEPT? Foramen magnum
In what part of the body is cerebral spinal fluid produced? Central Ventricles
The 12 pairs of cranial and 31 pairs spinal nerves form what nervous system? Peripheral
This nerve controls the muscles of the tongue. Hypoglossal
This nerve allows you to stick out your tongue. Hypoglossal
This nerve receives sensory input from the face. Trigeminal
The autonomic nervous system is composed of two main divisions. Sympathetic and parasympathetic systems
Conservation and restoration of energy are the result of nerve impulses arising from which, if any, of the following nervous systems? Sympathetic
Increased heart rate. Sympathetic
Visual Acuity Central
Decreases heart rate to within normal limits Parasympathetic
Reflex arc Peripheral
Hormones secreted by the endocrine system are? Secreted into the circulatory system
The overproduction of which hormone leads to acromegaly? Thyroxin
Which of the following diseases is characterized by a deficiency of the antidiuretic hormone? Diabetes insipidus
An insufficient secretion of thyroxin is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT? Profuse sweating
Calcium levels in the blood are controlled by which of the following hormones? Parathormone
Electrolyte balance is a function of the hormone produced by the? Posterior lobe of the pituitary gland
A metabolic response to epinephrine includes which, if any, of the symptoms listed below? Increased blood pressure
What hormone is produced by the alpha cells of the islands of Langerhans in the pancreas? Insulin
The cornea is part of the protective outer layer of the eye called the? Sclera
The inner part of the eye derives its dimensional nourishment primarily from what vascular tissue? Vitreous humor
Dilation of the pupil, a muscular response of the iris, normally occurs as a result of what? Decreased intensity of light
Of the elements listed below, which makes seeing in the dark possible? Rods
By what process is three-dimensional vision produced? Convergence
The mechanical transmission of sound from the tympanic membrane to the inner ear is a function of which of the following? Auditory ossicles
What structure(s) of the inner ear provide(s) neural stimuli used to maintain equilibrium? Semicircular canals
The conversion of mechanical impulses (sound waves) to neural impulses that can be interpreted by the brain is a function of the ______? Organ of Corti
The enzymatic action of amylase results in the chemical breakdown of ______? starches to complex sugars
Absorption of food occurs predominantly in which of the following areas of the intestines? Small intestines
Of these listed below, which function as the accessory organs of digestion for the small intestines? Pancreas, liver, and gallbladder
The gallbladder performs which of the following purposes? Stores bile
The functional unit of the kidney is called the? Nephron
What are function(s) of the kidneys? 1. To maintain acid-base balance 2. To remove excess waste from the blood 3. Formation of urine
What is the approximate total capacity of the adult bladder? 300 ml
Testosterone production is a function of which of the following glands? Testes
What is considered the primary female reproductive organs? Ovaries
Fertilization of an ovum normally takes place in the? Uterus
The limitations imposed upon a healthcare provider are based on local regulations and what elements? 1. The rating’s occupational standards 2. The rate training manual 3. The provider’s training and experience