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Neuro 117

Ataxia Jerky, poorly controlled movements
Adiadochokinesia inability to perform rapid, alternating movements
Dysmetria Overshooting or undershooting target
Dyssynergia Voluntary movements appear broken into parts
Nystagmus involuntary rapid movements of eyeballs
Dysarthria Explosive or slurred speech
Chorea Involuntary, purposeless, quick and jerky movements
Athetoid movements slow, wormlike, arrhythmic movements
Dystonia Persistent posturing of extremities
Ballism Forceful extension of limb (unilateral)
Tremor Intentional, resting, essential familial
Cortex Outside layer of the brain where functions happen
2 cerebral hemispheres Left - language Right - Visual spatial
Functions of lobes Frontal- logic Temporal- auditory memory Parietal - sensation, visual and sensory perception Occipital - vision
Function of brain stem Breathing, Heartbeat, Blood pressure
UMN Spasticity and stiffness- increased/abnormal reflexes-hypertonia
LMN Weakness, low tone, atrophy - innervate skeletal muscles- decreased reflexes, twitches, hypotonia
Motor Control ability to maintain and change posture and movement, Stability, Mobility, Coordination
Motor Learning acquisition of new skills and retention of and transfer of skills to novel situations
Paresis Weakness
Flaccidity No muscle tone, little muscle tone - Down Syndrome
Hypertonicity spasticity, rigidity, clonus
Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) autoimmune reaction that destroys the myelin surrounding peripheral nerve fibers Symptoms: flaccid paralysis, sensory loss, blood pressure fluctuations, dysarthria (difficulty speaking), dysphagia (difficulty swallowing)
How many spinal nerves are in the human body? 31 pairs
Are cranial nerves sensory or motor? Some are motor only, some are sensory only, some are both
Are spinal nerves sensory or motor? both
How many cranial nerves are in the human body? 12 pairs
Anatomical divisions of the nervous system CNS and PNS
Which anatomical system do the cranial nerves belong to? PNS
What is located in the dorsal root ganglion? Sensory root fibers
Neurons in the PNS can regenerate? T or F True
Ganglion A group of cell bodies outside of the CNS
Sensory nerves Afferent - away from CNS- Dorsal, enter spinal cord
Motor nerves Efferent - toward the CNS - Ventral, exit spinal cord
MS Autoimmune, destruction of Myelin, Spasticity, weakness, sensory loss, fatigue, cognitive and visual disturbance, loss of postural control, Women ages 20-50
Stages of Motor Learning Cognitive - talk and think through Associative - connect the task with previous experience Autonomous - performed without thought, habit
Types of Motor Learning Procedural - demonstration, practice, feedback Declarative - descriptive sequence of events, used before procedural learning
Causes of lesions of the LMN Nerve root compression, trauma, toxins, infections, cancer, vascular disorders, degenerative diseases, congenital malformations
Post polio increased weakness of muscles previously affected, FATIGUE, atrophy, joint pain, scoliosis, limitation in ADL's, ambulation, swallowing, bladder and bowel control OT: reduce fatigue, assistive devices, energy conservation
Myasthenia Gravis- LMN Targets muscles of the eyelids and eyes, twitching, double vision, drooping eyelids, difficulty with speech and swallowing. Progressive, could lead to permanent paralysis OT: regain muscle power and endurance
Muscular Dystrophy Genetic, degenerative. Sensitive to heat, cooler room, manage sensory deficits (vision, etc), planning and pacing,
Motor unit is made up of neuron, neuromuscular junction, muscle fibers
Parkinson's Disease Slow, Chronic, Progressive, Tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia, impaired balance, high fall risk, freezing during gait,
ALS UMN (spasticity and stiffness) and LMN (weakness, low, tone, atrophy) affected, speech and swallowing difficulty, hyperactive reflexed and twitches, cramping, prisoner in their own body,
Alzheimers I in 10 ppl over 65, slow progressive deterioration of brain tissue, ADL's, environment, exercise
Dendrites conduct TOWARDS the cell body
Axons conduct AWAY from the cell body
Cerebellum movement, posture, balance
Spinal cord connects PNS to the brain, coordinating center for simple reflexes
Neuroanatomy Structure
Neurophysiology Function
Two methods by which synaptic communication occurs Chemical (most) and Electrical
Neurogenic Nerve cells
Myopathic Muscles
Created by: 1531037470