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direcional terms intro to A&P

anatomical position standard body position *erect,head level,eyes forward *feet flat on the floor *arms at the sides *palms facing forward
superior *above *towards the head or upper part of a structure
inferior=caudal *below *awar from the head or lower part of a structure
anterior=ventral *nearer to or at the front of the body
posterior=dorsal *back *nearer to or at the back of the body
medial *nearer to the midline
lateral *farther from the midline
proximal nearer to *if a limb, nearer to the point of attachment
distal * farther from *if a limb farther from the point of attachment
superficial=external toward or on the surface of the body
deep=internal *away from the surface of the body
ipsilateral * on the same side of the body as another structure
contralateral *on the opposite side of the body from another structure
planes * body planes are imaginary flat surfaces that pass through body parts
sagittal plane *vertical *divides the body into right and left
mid-sagittal plane=median sagittal plane *sagittal plane directly down the midline * equal parts
parasagittal plane *sagittal plan offset from the midline *unequal parts
frontal plane=coronal plane *vertical *divides body into anterior and posterior parts
transverse plane=cross sections=horizontal plane *horizontal *divides the body into superior and inferior planes
oblique plane *passes through the body on an angle between the transverse plane & either a sagittal or frontal plane *SLANT
body cavities *spaces within the body that house,protect,& separate internal organs
cranial cavity *encases the brain
vertebral=spinal cavity *runs within the bony vertebral column *encloses the spinal card
thoracic cavity *fromed by the ribs,muscles of the chest, the breastbone & chest portions of the spine *houses the HEART & LUNGS(plus esophagus,trachea,etc.)
pericardial cavity *surrounds the HEART
pleural cavities *surround each lung
mediastinum *cavity between the lungs that contain all thoracic organs except the lungs *heart,esophagus,trachea,thymus,several large blood vessels
abdominopelvis cavity extends from the diaphragm to the groin and is enriched by the abdominal wall & bones of muscles of the pelvis
abdominal cavity contains most of *large intestine,small intestine,stomach,liver,spleen,&gallbladder
pelvic cavity contains portions of the large intestine,& urinary bladder
retroperitoneal *contain *kidneys & pancreas
abdominopelvic quadrants *right upper quadrant *right lower quadrant *left upper quadrant *left lower quadrant
number of organ systems in body 11
integumentary system organs *skin *related structures hair,nails,sweat 7 oil glands
integumentary system function * protection *body temperature regulation & perception
skeletal system organs *bones *cartilage *joints
skeletal system function *support *protection *blood cell production *movement
muscular system organs *skeletal muscle
muscular system function *movement *maintains posture *maintains heat production
nervous system organs *brain *spinal cord *nerves *sense organs
nervous system function *regulations via nerves
endocrine system organs *glands *pancreal gland *thyroid gland *pituitary gland *adrenal gland *pancreas *ovary *testes
endocrine system function * regulation of body activities via hormones
cardiovascular system organs *blood *heart *blood vessels
cardiovascular system function *transportation of oxygen & nutrients *protection against disease
Lymphatic system/immunity organs *lymph *spleen *thymus *lymph nodes *tonsils
Lymphatic system/immunity function *protection *transport *filters *WBC production
respiratory system organs *pharynx *larynx *trachea *lungs
respiratory system function *gas exchange
digestive system organs *organs of GI tract *mouth, esophagus,stomach, small intestine,large intestine *acessory digestive organs: salivary glands,liver,gallbladder,& pancreas
digestive system function *nutrient absorption *elimination of waste
urinary system organs * kidneys *ureters *urinary bladder *urethra
urinary system function *removes waste in form of urine *filters blood *regulates pH *regulates cell production
female reproductive system organs *ovaries *fallopian tubes *uterus *vagina *mammary glands
female reproductive system function *production & transporation of reproductive cells *hormone production *mammary glands secrete milk
male reproductive system organs *testes *epididymis *seminal vesicles *urethra
male reproductive system function *production & transportation of reproductive cells *hormone production
Created by: sgambito1