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Chapter 21

AP Euro - Napoleon

Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) Born of Italian descent to a prominent Corsican family on the French island of Corsica. Military genius; specialized in artillery. An avid “child of the Enlightenment” and Revolution.
Consulate Period 1799-1804 (Enlightened Reform) Took power on December 25, 1799 with the constitution giving supreme power to Napoleon.
First Consul [Consulate Period (1799-1804)] As _____ ______, Napoleon, behaved more as an absolute ruler than a revolutionary statesman.
Napoleonic Code Legal unity provided first clear and complete codification of French Law. Perhaps the longest lasting legacy of Napoleon’s rule.
Careers Open to Talent Citizens theoretically were able to rise in gov’t service purely according on their abilities. Creation of new imperial nobility to reward most talented generals & officials.
Concordat of 1801 Roman Catholic Church Napoleon’s motives: Making peace with the Church would help weaken its link to monarchists... Provisions: Papacy renounced claims to Church property that had been seized during the Revolution
Bank of France (1800) served interests of the state and financial oligarchy. A revived version of one of the banks of the Old Regime. Balanced the national budget Established sound currency and public credit.
War of the Second Coalition 1798-1801 Napoleon had his navy destroyed by England’s Lord Horatio Nelson in the Battle of the Nile (1898). • Napoleon and the French army isolated in North Africa. Napoleon victorious in the war, nevertheless.
Jacques-Louis David (1801) Ended the Second Coalition. Resulted in Austria’s loss of its Italian possessions. German territory on the west bank of the Rhine incorporated into France.
Empire Period (1804-1814) 1804-1814 (War and Defeat) Dec 2, 1804, Napoleon crowned himself hereditary Emperor of France in Notre-Dame Cathedral.
Grand Empire Beginning in 1805, Napoleon engaged in constant warfare. Eventually, Napoleon achieved the largest empire since Roman times (although it was only temporary)
War of the Third Coalition (1805-1807) 1803, Napoleon began preparations to invade Great Britain. 1805, Austria signed an alliance with Britain. Coalition was complete with the addition of Russia under Tsar Alexander I (grandson of Catherine the Great) and Sweden.
Battle of Trafalgar October 21, 1805 French and Spanish fleets were destroyed by the British navy under the command of Lord Horatio Nelson, off the Spanish coast. Established supremacy of British navy for over a century. French invasion of Britain no longer feasible
Lord Horatio Nelson Commander of the British Navy
Battle of Austerlitz December, 1805 (Moravia) Alexander I pulled Russian troops out of the battle, giving Napoleon another victory. Austria accepted large territorial losses in return for peace. Third Coalition collapsed.
Arc de Triomphe In commemoration of his victory in the Battle of Austerlitz, Napoleon commissioned this in 1806.
Treaty of Tilsit June 1807 Prussia lost 1/2 its population in lands ceded to France. Russia accepted Napoleon’s reorganization of western and central Europe. Russia also agreed to accept Napoleon’s Continental System.
Confederation of the Rhine 15 German states minus Austria, Prussia, and Saxony. • Napoleon named himself “Protector” of the Confederation. • Many tiny German states abolished.
Continental System Napoleon decided to wage economic warfare against Britain after his loss at the Battle of Trafalgar. Through shifting alliances, Britain had consistently maintained the balance of power against France.
Berlin Decree 1806: Napoleon sought to starve Britain out by closing ports on the continent to British commerce.
Order in Council England, in response, issued the “___ ____”: neutrals might enter continental ports only if they first stopped in Great Britain
Peninsular War (1808-1814) First great revolt against Napoleon’s power occurred in Spain. When Napoleon tried to tighten his control over Spain by replacing the Spanish King with his brother, Joseph, the Spanish people waged a costly guerrilla war.
Russian Campaign (1812) Napoleon invaded Russia in June of 1812, with his Grand Army of 600,000 Only 1/3 of his forces were French. Cause: Russians withdrew from the Continental System due to economic hardships it had caused.
Scorched earth policy A military strategy of burning or destroying buildings, crops, or other resources that might be of use to an invading enemy force.
War of the Fourth Coalition (1813-1814) Britain, Russia, Austria & Prussia
Battle of Leipzig (“Battle of Nations”), October, 1813: Napoleon finally defeated. Napoleon lost 500K of his 600K Grand Army Largest battle in world history until 20th century.
Quadruple Alliance created in March, 1814 • Each power agreed to provide 150,000 soldiers to enforce peace terms.
Louis XVIII Charter of 1814 King created a two-house legislature that represented only the upper classes. • First constitution in European history issued by a monarch.
“First” Treaty of Paris, May 30, 1814 France surrendered all territory gained since the Wars of the Revolution had begun in 1792. Allied powers imposed no indemnity or reparations (after Louis XVIII had refused to pay).
Exile to Elba When Napoleon abdicated in May 1814, he was exiled to ____. The island was recognized as an independent principality with Napoleon as its ruler until February 1815, when he returned to France to begin the Hundred Days.
1814 Congress of Vienna (September 1814-June 1815) Representatives of major powers of Europe, including France, met to redraw territorial lines and to try and restore the social and political order of the ancien regime.
Klemens von Metternich Klemens Von Metternich represented Austria. Epitomized conservative reaction. Opposed to the ideas of liberals and reformers because of the impact such forces would have on the multinational Hapsburg Empire.
Balance of Power arranged the map of Europe so that never again could one state upset the international order and cause a general war.
German Confederation (Bund) Enhanced Austrian influence over the German states by creating the ________ ________ (____) of 39 states out of the original 300, with Austria designated as President of the Diet (Assembly) of the Confederation.
Hundred Days (March 20-June 22, 1815) Napoleon capitalized on the stalled talks at Vienna and left Elba for France. Began on March 1, 1815, when Napoleon landed in the south of France and marched with large-scale popular support, into Paris.
Battle of Waterloo June 1815 Last battle of the Napoleonic Wars. Napoleon was defeated in Waterloo, Belgium, by England’s army led by the Duke of Wellington and Prussian forces.
Duke of Wellington Led England's army in the Battle of Waterloo and defeated Napoleon.
St. Helena Where Napoleon was exiled to the South Atlantic island of __. _____, far off the coast of Africa, where he died in 1821.
Concert of Europe (1815-1848) Included arrangements to guarantee enforcement of the status quo as defined by the Vienna settlement • Highly conservative in nature
“Holy Alliance” Proposed for all monarchs to sign a statement agreeing to uphold Christian principles of charity and peace throughout Europe. Liberals came to view it as a sort of unholy alliance of monarchies against liberty and progress.
Alexander I represented Russia • Demanded “free” and “independent” Poland, with himself as its king.
Created by: Jrod42