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A P Practical #1

TermDefinition
axial relating to the head,neck, and trunk
Appendicular Relating to limbs and their attachments to the axis
Abdominal the anterior body trunk region inferior to the ribs
Antebrachial the forearm
Antecubital the anterior surface of the elbow
Axillary the armpit
Brachial the arm
Buccal the cheeck
carpal the wrist
cephalic the head
digital fingers and toes
femoral thigh
gluteal the buttocks
inguinal the groin
lumbar the back between the ribs and hops
mammary the breast
nasal the nose
Occipital posterior aspect of the head/ back of skull
Oral the mouth
Orbital The bony eye socket
Pectoral the chest
Patellar Anterior knee region (kneecap)
Pelvic Pelvis region
Perineal The region between the anus and external genitalia
Popliteal the back of the knee
Pubic genital region
The Dorsal cavity is made up of which other two body cavities? The cranial and the vertebral
The cranial cavity encompasses which organ? The brain
The Vertebral cavity encompasses which organ? The spinal cord
The thoracic cavity is made up of which two other body cavities? The plural and the pericardial
The abdominopelvic cavity is made up of which two other body cavities? The abdominal and the pelvic
The abdominal cavity encompasses which organs? stomach, liver, gallbladder, spleen, pancreas, small intestine, kidneys, large intestine, and adrenal glands.
The pelvic cavity encompasses which organs? The reproductive organs, urinary bladder, and the rectum
The pleural cavity encompasses which organs? the lungs
The pericardial cavity encompasses which organs? The heart
What is the mediastinum? The spaces between the lungs
What is a parietal membrane? The outermost layer(s) of membrane surrounding an organ.
What is a visceral membrane? The innermost layer of membrane surrounding an organ. It lies directly on the organ.
Name the quadrants of the abdominal area. Right upper, right lower, left upper, left lower.
What major organs are contained in the right upper quadrant? liver, gallbladder, right kidney, portions of small and large intestines.
What major organs are contained in the right lower quadrant? appendix, portions of small and large intestine, right ureter, right ovary (female)
What major organs are contained in the left upper quadrant? liver, stomach, pancreas, left kidney, spleen, portions of small and large intestine.
What major organs are contained in the left lower quadrant? portions of small and large intestine, left ureter, left ovary (female)
What organs are involved in the integumentary system? Hair, skin, nails
What is the main function of the integumentary system? Forms the external body covering, protects deeper tissues from injury, synthesizes vitamin D, houses cutaneous receptors and sweat and oil glands.
What organs are involved in the skeletal system? Joints and bones
What is the main function of the skeletal system? It protects and supports body organs and provides a framework the muscles use for movement. Bone cells are formed in bones. Bones also store minerals.
What organs are involved in the muscular system? Skeletal muscles
What is the main function of the muscular system? Allows manipulation of the enviornment, locomotion, and facial expression, maintains posture and produces heat.
What organs are involved in the nervous system? Spinal cord, nerves, and brain
What is the main function of the nervous system? It is the body's control system. It responds to internal and external changes by activating muscles and glands.
What organs are involved in the endocrine system? thyroid gland, pineal gland, pituitary gland, thymus, adrenal gland, pancreas, testis, ovaries.
What is the main function of the endocrine system? Glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and metabolism by body cells.
What organs are involved in the cardiovascular system? The heart and blood vessels
What is the main function of the cardiovascular system? Blood vessels transport blood which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, etc. Heart pumps blood.
What organs are involved in the lymphatic/immune system? Red bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, thoracic duct, lymphatic vessels.
What is the main function of the lymphatic/immune system? Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to the blood. Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream. Houses white blood cells involved in immunity. Mounts attack on foregin substances in the body.
What organs are involved in the respiratory system? Nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, lung, bronchus
What is the main function of the respiratory system? Keeps blood supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide.
What organs are involved in the digestive system? mouth, esophagus, liver, stomach, small intestine, large, rectum, anus.
What is the main function of the digestive system? Break down good into absorbable unites that can then enter the blood for distribution to body cells.
What organs are involved in the urinary system? kidneys, ureter, urinary bladder, and urethra.
What is the main function of the urinary system? Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body and regulates water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of the blood.
What organs are involved in the reproductive system? prostate gland, penis, testis, ductus deferens, scrotum, mammary glands, ovary, uterine tube, uterus, vagina.
What is the main function of the reproductive system? To produce offspring. Testes produce sperm and male sex hormones. Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormone. Female structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus. Mammary glands produce milk for the newborn.
What is a sagittal plane? runs longitudinally, dividing the body into right and left. (Any vertical)
Describe a midsaggital line. A plane that runs vertically down exact center of the body.
Describe a frontal line. It divides the body or an organ into anterior and posterior (front and back) parts.
Describe a transverse line Runs horizontally, divides into superior and anterior (top and bottom) parts.
Describe an oblique line. Runs at an angle at any point on the body.
What does anterior mean? In front of
What does distal mean? farther from the beginning point
What does inferior mean? below
What does lateral mean? Farther from center line
What does medial mean? Closer to center line
What does posterior mean? behind
What does proximal mean? closer to the beginning point
What does superficial mean? External
What does deep mean? Internal
What does superior mean? Above
Describe anatomical position. Body is upright, feet are shoulder-width apart, arms are down and slightly away from the rest of the body, palms are facing forward.
How do you properly carry a microscope? Hold it in an upright position with one hand gripping its arm and the other under its base.
How do you properly clean a microscope? Use only special grit-free lens paper to clean the lenses, using a circular motion.
How do you store a microscope? Rotate to the lowest power objective, wrap cord neatly around the base, and replace the dust cover. Never remove any parts of the microscope.
What are the names of the lenses on the microscope? Scanning (4x), Low (10x), and High (40x)
What is greater at lower magnifications? Depth of field
What does parfocal mean? A slide should be in focus (or nearly so) at the higher magnifications once you have properly focused it at a lower magnification.
Acromial the point of the shoulder
Palmar the palm of the hand
pedal the foot
Pollex the thumb
Tarsal the ankle
Calcaneal the heel of the foot
dorsum the back
manus the hand
Olecranal The posterior aspect of the elbow
Otic the ear
Plantar the sole of the foot
Sacral the region between the hips (posterior)
Scapular shoulder blade
Sural the calf or posterior surface of the leg
Anatomy The study of body parts and their relationship to one another.
Physiology the study of the function of the bodies structural machinery.
Name the 8 subdivisions of anatomy discussed in class. Macrscopic/gross, surface, histology, cytology, embryology, regional, developmental, systemic.
Describe macroscopic/gross anatomy the study of large structure that are visible to the naked human eye.
Regional anatomy all the structure in a particular region of the body are studied.
Systemic anatomy body structure is studied system by system.
Surface anatomy the study of internal structures as related to overlying skin surface.
Microscopic anatomy the study of structures to small to be seen with the naked eye.
Cytology the study of the cell of the body.
Histology the study of tissues
Developmental anatomy The study of the structural changes that occur in the body throughout the life span.
Embryology The study of developmental changes that occur before birth.
Describe homeostasis homeostasis refers to the body's ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions despite the conditions of the external environment. virtually every organ plays a role in maintaining the internal environment.
Give example of homestasis Temperature stability via sweating or shivering. And the withdrawal reflex.
List the levels of the biological hierarchy Chemical, cellular, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms.
Give an example of how several organ systems work together. Digestive system takes in nutrients  cardiovascular systems then distributes nutrients and oxygen from the respiratory system to the body’s cells.
Describe a negative feedback loop Shuts off or reduces the original stimulus.
Give some examples of a negative feedback loop Temperature maintenance (sweating, shivering) and withdrawal reflex.
Describe a positive feedback loop Enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus.
Give some examples of a positive feedback loop Blood clotting and labor contractions (oxytocin)
What is the difference between matter and energy? Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. Energy, on the other hand, does not occupy space or have mass. It is the capacity to do work or put matter into motion.
Name the three states of matter and give an example of each. Solid - teeth and bones Gaseous - the air we breath Liquid - Blood
List the different forms of energy kinetic, chemical, electrical, mechanical, radiant/electromagnetic, and potential.
Describe kinetic energy Energy in action
Describe chemical energy energy stored in the bonds of chemical substances.
Describe electrical energy energy that results from the movement of charged particles.
Describe mechanical energy energy directly involved in moving matter.
Describe radiant/electromagnetic energy Energy that travels in waves.
Describe potential energy Energy that is stored
Describe the structure of an atom. An atom is composed of subatomic particles. The nucleus in the center contains protons and neutrons. An electron cloud contains electrons that whirl around the nucleus.
What is the charge of all the particles that can be found in an atom? the number of electrons in the electron cloud must always equal the number of protons in the nucleus.
What does the atomic number of an element tell you about the particles found inside it? The atomic number is equal to the number of protons in an element.
Which four elements make up 96% of your body? Oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, and carbon.
What is an isotope? An element that has the same number of protons and electrons but varies in the number of neutrons.
What is the valence shell of an atom? The outermost shell of an atom consisting of valence electrons.
What makes a valence shell "full"? A valence shell is full when in contains the maximum amount of electrons (8).
An element without a full valence shell is considered.... chemically reactive
Elements with a full valence shell are considered.... inert.
name the 3 types of chemical bonds discussed in class. Hydrogen, Ionic, and Covalent.
Describe a hydrogen bond the attractive force between the electropositive hydrogen of one molecule and the electronegative atom of another molecule.
Describe an ionic bond it is formed by the transfer of valence shell electrons between atoms.
Describe a covalent bond formed by the sharing of two or more valence electrons.
How does a molecule become polar and why? A molecule is considered polar when it has a slight positive charge on one side and a slight negative charge on the other. This allows them to dissolve in a solvent.
Name the 3 different types of chemical reactions Synthesis, decomposition, and exchange reactions.
Describe a synthesis reaction A+B --> A... Atoms or molecule combine. Energy is absorbed when bonds are formed.
Give an example of a synthesis reaction Amino acids are joined together to form a protein molecule.
Describe a decomposition reaction AB --> A+B... Molecule is broken down. chemical energy is released when bonds are formed.
Give an example of a decomposition reaction glycogen is broken down into glucose units during digestion
Describe an exchange reaction AB+C --> AC +B... bonds are both formed and broken.
Give an example of an exchange reaction ATP transfers its terminal phosphate group to glucose to form glucose-phosphate.
What makes a compound organic? Contains carbon, most are covalently bonded, and are fairly large molecules.
List some of the reasons that water is important It makes up 60-80% of the volume of living cells, it has a high heat capacity and is able to prevent sudden changes in temperature, it has a high heat vaporization (sweating), Polar solvent properties, it is cushioning and protective for tissues.
What hydrophillic mean? polar molecules that are attracted to water and interact easily with it.
What does hydrophobic mean? nonpolar molecules that do not interact or dissolve in water.
What is the pH scale? The pH scale is a measure of how acidic a substance is based on the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution.
What pH value make something an acid? Below 7 (large amounts of H+)
What pH value makes something alkaline? Above 7 (large amounts of OH-)
What pH value makes something neutral? Exactly 7 (equal amounts of H+ and OH-)
What is the function/purpose of a buffer? Buffers are chemical that are resistant to abrupt or large swings in pH. They will release either H+ or OH- ions to counteract influx of acid or alkaline substances.
What categorizes a molecule as a macromolecule? it is a large, organic compound made by combing subunits in a very specific way.
What are the 4 major classes of macromolecules? Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
List the monomers of each of the macromolecules. Carbs - simple sugars, lipids - fatty acids, protein - amino acids, nucleic acids - nucleotides.
List the function of each of carbohydrates Energy storage (short-term)
List the functions of lipids Energy storage (long-term), insulation, membrane strucutre.
List the functions of proteins. Act as enzymes, hormones, and antibodies. Provides construction materials for body structure, plays a vital role in cell function.
List the functions of nucleic acids Information storage and transfer
What type of molecule is an enzyme? Protein
What function do enzymes perform in the body? They act as biological catalysts that regulate and accelerate the rate of biochemical reactions. They are not used up or changed in those reactions.
What is the significance of ATP In the cell? ATP is the basic unit of energy for the body. All sources must be converted to ATP before the cell can use it. Energy potential from fuel source is used to create ATP.
What are the major differences between RNA and DNA? DNA is found in the nucleus - RNA outsides the nucleus. DNA provides instructions for building proteins - RNA carries out those instructions. DNA is a long, double-stranded polymer - RNA is a single strand of nucleotides.
What are the important chemical components of the cell? carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen.
What molecules makes up the majority of the cell membrane? Lipids
Why do the molecules of the cell membrane orient themselves into a double layer? The double layered membrane separates intracellular fluid from extracellular fluid. The hydrophobic and hydrophillic property encourages biological membranes to self assemble that are able to reseal themselves when torn.
Name the 3 types of membrane extensions found on human cells. Cilia, flagella, and microvilli.
Describe cilia Whip like, motile cellular extensions that move substances in one direction across the cell surface.
Describe flagella a tail-like structure that propels the cell itself. A sperm cell is the only flagellated cell in the human body.
Describe microvilli Minute, finger like extensions of the plasma membrane that greatly increase the plasma membrane surface area.
Describe the structure/function of rough er. the external surface is studded with ribosomes. Manufactures all secreted proteins and is responsible for the synthesis of integral proteins and phospholipids for cell membranes.
Describe the structure/function of smooth er. Catalyzes reactions in various organs of the body. For example: In the liver - lipid and cholesterol metabolism and breakdown of glycogen.
What is the function of a Golgi body? Functions in modification, concentration, and packaging of proteins.
What are the functions of lysosomes? Digest ingested bacteria, break down Ca2+, degrade nonfunctional organelles and non-useful tissue, breakdown glycogen, and release thyroid hormone.
What are the functions of peroxisomes? Detoxify harmful or toxic substances and neutralize dangerous free radicals.
List the major differences between lysosomes and peroxisomes (besides function). L contains hydrolytic enzymes - P contains oxidative enzymes. P are usually larger than L. In a cell there are much more P than L. P are dervied from the ER, but L are derived from the Golgi body.
What is the function of a mitochondria. the "power house" of the cell. It provides the cell's ATP via cellular respiration.
What is the role of the nucleus in the cell? Contains the genetic library with blueprints for nearly all cellular proteins. It dictates the kind and amounts of proteins to be syntehsized.
Name the 4 components of the nucleus. nuclear envelope, nucleoli, chromatin, and nuclear pores.
Describe the nuclear envelope selectively permeable double membrane with nuclear pores.
Describe the nucleoli Dark-staining spherical bodies within the nucleus. Site of ribosome production.
Describe chromatin Formed from the duplication of the chromosome during the early stages of cell division then separate to make individual chromosomes.
Describe nuclear pores Regulate transport of large molecules in and out of the nucleus.
What is the name of the process by which large particles or bacteria are taken into a cell? Phagocytosis
If a solute is placed in water, the molecules will spread out until it is evenly dispersed throughout the solution. What is that process called? Diffusion
Describe osmosis the diffusion of a solvent through a selectively permeable membrane.
Name the three tonic solutions we discussed Hypertonic, hyptonic, and isotonic.
Describe a hypertonic solution solution having greater solute concentration than the inside of the cell.
Describe a hypotonic solution solution having lesser solute concentration than the inside of the cell.
Describe an isotonic solution solution with the same solute concentration than that inside the cell.
What chemicals can pass right across a cell membrane, and do not need transporter? oxygen, fat-soluble vitamins, carbon dioxide, and water.
What are the 4 ways materials can cross the cell membrane passively? Simple diffusion, carrier-mediated facilitated diffusion, channel-mediate facilitated diffusion, osmosis.
Describe facilitated diffusion. Transported substances either bind to carrier proteins or pass through protein channels.
What are the two "triggers" for gated channels? Electrical or chemical stimulus
What is the most important example of primary active transport in the human cell? The sodium-potassium pump
Describe the action of the sodium-potassium pump It simultaneously drives Na+ out of the cell against a steep concentration gradient and pumps K+ back in. This is essential for all body cells to maintain their normal fluid volume.
What is transcription? the transfer of information from the DNA's base sequence to the complimentary base sequence of mRNA.
Where does transcription ocurr? in the nucleus
What is translation? the base sequence of nucleic acid is translated to an amino acid sequence.
Where does translation occure? In the cytoplasm
List the phases of the cell cycle. Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase.
What is occurring during interphase? the cell is carrying out normal metabolic activities and growing.
What is occurring during prophase? the chromatin condenses, forming bar like chromosomes. The nuclear envelop fragments and begins to dissapear.
What is occurring during metaphase? The chromosomes are pulled by microtubules (called spindle fibers) into place. The chromosomes line up at the cell's equator and are prepared for division.
What is occurring during anaphase? The chromosomes move from the cell's equator to their respective poles of the cell. The cell begins to stretch out as the opposite ends are pushed apart.
What is occurring during telophase? The spindle fibers begin to dissapear and a nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes. A nucleolus appears with each new nucleus and single stranded chromosomes uncoil and into visible strand of chromatin.
What is the difference in function of tRNA and mRNA? tRNA transfer appropriate amino acids to the ribosome for building the protein. mRNA carries the instructions for building a protein from the nucleus to the ribosome.
Created by: EffieSL