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Chapter 21

AP Euro - Revolution in Politics 1775-1815

Louix XV (r. 1715-1774) The nobility gained influence during his reign His ministers and mistresses exercised undue influence on him, controlling affairs of state and undermining the prestige of the monarchy
Madame de Pompadour most famous mistress of 18th century who influenced Louis XV in making important government decisions and giving advice on appointments and foreign policy.
Parlement The high court of Paris was restored with the power to approve or disapprove the king’s decrees.
René de Maupeou appointed as chancellor and ordered him to subdue judicial opposition.
Louis XVI (r. 1774-1792) dismissed Maupeou and repudiated Maupeou’s laws. Old Parlement reinstated. The public hoped for reforms leading to more representative government, it was ultimately disappointed.
Marie Antoinette Archduchess of Austria, Daughter of Mother Theresa Married Louis XVI for an alliance between France and Austria. "Let them eat cake"
First Estate The clergy Less than 1% of population but the Catholic Church in France (Gallican Church) owned 20% of the land.
Gallican Church Catholic Church in France
Second Estate Nobility 2-4% of total population; exempt from taxation. Owned about 25% of the land Experienced a great resurgence since the death of Louis XIV in 1715. Enjoyed certain manorial rights
Third Estate Consisted of a few rich merchants or professionals, the middle class, urban artisans, unskilled workers and the mass of peasants.
corvée Obligated peasants to work for nobles several days a year
Bourgeoisie Demanded that political and social power be congruent with their emerging economic power. Resented the First and Second Estates who held all political and social power. Wanted reduction of privileges for nobility and tax relief for themselves.
Lettre de cachet Government could imprison anyone without charges or trial.
Ancien regime (Old Regime) Was the monarchic, aristocratic, social and political system established in the Kingdom of France from approximately the 15th century until the later 18th century ("early modern France") under the late Valois and Bourbon dynasties.
Jacques Necker Louis XVI’s director of finances tried to raise taxes but was dismissed.
Assembly of Notables (1787) hoping they would either approve the king’s new tax program or consent to remove their tax exemptions
Estates General Feudal assembly that represented the Three Estates. Had only met twice: 1302 (its inception) & 1614. 1788-89 excitement swept over France on the eve of its very first election.
Cahiers de doléances Each estate was instructed to compile a list of suggestions and grievances and present them to the king.
Abbé Sieyès, What is the Third Estate? The most influential writer in the 3rd Estate. Claimed the 3rd Estate should have the power in France. Said nobility should be abolished. Believed the 3rd Estate represented the vast majority of French society Brought the ideas of S.C. to the front.
“Age of Montesquieu” Constitutional Monarchy(1789-1792) National Assembly and Legislative Assembly
National Assembly Dominated by the bourgeoisie June 17, the Third Estate declared itself the true ___________ of France
Tennis Court Oath The Third Estate swore to remain together until it had given France a constitution. They met in an indoor tennis court.
Storming of the Bastille July 14, 1789 “Parisian” revolution began in response to food shortages, soaring bread prices, 25% unemployment, and fear of military repression Saved the National Assembly. An angry mob stormed the Bastille in search of gunpowder and weapons
“Great Fear” Spirit of rebellion spread to the French countryside, sparking a wave of violence. Peasants attacked manor houses in an effort to destroy the legal records of their feudal obligations.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen issued August 26, 1789 Became the constitutional blueprint for France. Enlightenment philosophy: classical liberalism
Citizen This word is applied to all French people, regardless of class.
Olympe de Gouges: The Rights of Woman, 1791 Following official Declaration in each of its 17 articles, she applied them to women explicitly in each case.
Mary Wollstonecraft, Vindication of the Rights of Woman in England published in 1792. • Ideas similar to de Gouges
Madame de Stael Ran a salon and wrote widely read books. Deplored subordination of women to men that the Revolution had done so little to change.
Women’s march to Versailles Women pushed the revolution forward in October when shortages of bread persisted. Incited by Jean-Paul Marat, 7,000 women (along with the Paris national guard) marched 12 miles from Paris to Versailles demanding the king redress their economic problems.
Jean-Paul Marat Was a physician, political theorist and scientist best known for his career in France as a radical journalist and politician during the French Revolution.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy, 1790 Created a national church with 83 bishops and dioceses. Biggest mistake made by the National Assembly. Clergy forced to take a loyalty oath to the new gov’t. Result: deeply divided France over the issue of religion
“refractory clergy” They had the support of the king, former aristocrats, peasants, and the urban working-class.
83 Departments The National Assembly divided France These parts were governed by elected officials
Assignats became new paper currency. • Former church property was used to guarantee value of ______. e. Church land sold to pay off national debt • Much of it purchased by peasants
Flight to Varennes Louis XVI tried to escape France in June, 1791 to avoid having to approve the Constitution of 1791 and to raise a counterrevolutionary army with émigré noblemen and seek help from foreign powers.
Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France One of the great intellectual defenses of European conservatism. Defended inherited privileges, especially those of English monarchy and aristocracy. Predicted anarchy and dictatorship in France.
Thomas Paine, Rights of Man Responded to Burke’s argument by defending Enlightenment principles and France’s revolution. Saw triumph of liberty over despotism. Kings and nobles of Europe, some of which initially welcomed the Revolution, began to feel threatened.
Legislative Assembly A completely new group of legislators replaced the National Assembly in the new government.
Jacobins named after their political club, came to dominate the Legislative Assembly.
Girondins a group of Jacobins, became the left or advanced party of the Revolution in the Legislative Assembly and led the country into war.
Declaration of Pillnitz issued by Prussia and Austria in August, 1791. It declared the joint support of the Holy Roman Empire and of Prussia for King Louis XVI of France against the French Revolution.
Émigrés French nobles who fled France beginning in 1789, influenced Prussia and Austria to declare the restoration of the French monarchy as their goal.
War of the First Coalition French revolutionary forces were soundly defeated by the Austrian military. • Only the conflict between eastern monarchs over the division of Poland saved France from defeat. • Intensified existing unrest and dissatisfaction of non propertied classes.
Brunswick Manifesto issued by Prussia and Austria and threatened to destroy Paris if the royal family was harmed.
Storming of the Tuluries (the king’s palace in Paris) was stormed and the King was taken prisoner, after fleeing to the Legislative Assembly.
Paris Commune Revolutionary municipal gov’t set up in Paris, which effectively usurped the power of the Legislative Assembly. Led by Georges-Jacques Danton At the urging of radicals, the Legislative Assembly suspended the Constitution of 1791.
Georges-Jacques Danton Led the Paris Commune. A leading figure in the early stages of the French Revolution and the first President of the Committee of Public Safety.
September Massacre Rumors spread that imprisoned counterrevolutionary aristocrats and priests were plotting with foreign invaders. Mobs slaughtered over a thousand priests, bourgeoisie, and aristocrats who opposed their program; many were in prison.
Age of Rousseau France was proclaimed a republic on Sept. 21, 1792 Two factions emerged among the Jacobins: The sans-culottes became very influential on the National Convention. Many revolutionary victories. Louis XVI was convicted of treason and later killed.
National Convention 1792-1795 France was proclaimed a republic on Sept. 21, 1792 Abolished the monarchy; installed republicanism. Based on the ideas of Equality, Liberty, Fraternity
Equality, Liberty, Fraternity The ideas that the National Convention was based on.
Mountain radical republicans; urban class. • Its leaders, Danton and Robespierre, sat on the uppermost left-hand benches of the assembly hall.
Sans-culottes became very influential on the National Convention Predominantly from the working-class; extremely radical. Responsible for storming Bastille, marching to Versailles.... They feared the National Convention might be too moderate.
Enragés --radical working class leaders of Paris--seized & arrested 31 Girondist members of National Convention and left the Mountain in control.
Committee of Public Safety Became an emergency gov’t to deal with internal and external challenges to the revolution. Led by Maximilien Robespierre. Influenced heavily by the ideas of Rousseau and fanatically supported revolutionary idealism.
Maximilien Robespierre Was a French lawyer and politician, and one of the best-known and most influential figures of the French Revolution. He was a radical Jacobin leader and one of the principal figures in the French Revolution.
Louis Saint-Just also was a major leader of the C.O.P.S. alongside Robespierre.
Law of Maximum A planned economy to respond to food shortages and related economic problems.
Lazare Carnot He reorganized the French army.
Lévee en masse The entire nation conscripted into service as war was defined as a national mission.
Reign of Terror (1793-94) Most notorious event of the French Revolution. Many people were killed.
Law of Suspects Alleged enemies of the revolution were brought before Revolutionary Tribunals that were created to hear cases of treason
Vendée Many deaths occurred in places in open revolt against the Convention in France.
Jacques Hébert, Hébertistes Jacques Hébert, radical social democrat who led the “angry men”—Hébertistes were his followers. Had been responsible for deaths of 2,000 people at Nantes where they were loaded on barges and deliberately drowned. Paris Commune was thus destroyed.
Cult of Supreme Being introduced in June, 1794 Deistic natural religion, in which the Republic was declared to recognize the existence of God and the immortality of the soul.
Temple of Reason Notre Dame Cathedral was converted into this. It replaced Christianity.
Thermidorian Reaction ended reign of terror. • Constituted a significant swing to the right (conservatism). • Respectable bourgeois middle-class lawyers and professionals who had led liberal Revolution of 1789 reasserted their authority.
The Directory New constitution written in 1795 which set up a republican form of gov’t. Middle class controlled the government
Conspiracy of Equals led by “Gracchus” Babeuf formed to overthrow the Directory and replace it with a dictatorial “democratic” gov’t which would abolish private property and enforce equality. • Regarded as a precursor to modern communism.
Coup d’Etat Brumaire November, 1799 • Upon returning from Egypt with his forces, Napoleon drove legislators from the Legislative Assembly. • A new constitution established beginning the Consulate Era. • A plebiscite (general referendum) overwhelmingly approved:
Consulate Era Was the government of France from the fall of the Directory in the coup of Brumaire in 1799 until the start of the Napoleonic Empire in 1804.
plebiscite (general referendum)
Created by: Jrod42