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Quiz 1

Western Civ II

Social Hierarchy Social classes defined by law. All determined by wealth/birth. Very rigid.
Sumptuary Laws Regulated the dress of different social classes so that you could tell what class someone was at a glance.
Artisans skilled workers drawn from all levels of society from poor shoemakers and tailors to elite metal workers
Divine Right of Kings King chosen by God, therefore, answers only to God. If you disobey the king, you are disobeying God.
Great Chain of Being Hierarchy natural, ordained by God Obedience to “betters” Provides order, stability Rebellion against this = rebellion against God
Primogeniture Everything goes to the firstborn son
Gentry Lower nobility, but still in the top 10%. Second born sons and beyond. Retired military, retired bourgeouisie.
Yeomen Farmers A free man holding a small landed estate, a minor landowner, a small prosperous farmer (especially from the Elizabethan era to the 17th century), a deputy, assistant, journeyman, or a loyal or faithful servant.
Upper Nobility Top 1%. Dukes, Earls, Barons, Counts-church leaders, Bishops, archbishops, abbots Nobility = Aristocracy By birth, though sometimes elevated. Landed estates--Power from land, not money “business” = crass, sordid
Guilds Controlled skilled trades, Open only to masters in town, rotected their interests. How? Limited competition Set prices, production levels Prohibited innovation Determined who could enter trade Regulations carried force of law
Bourgeoisie Professional middle-class Lawyers, printers, merchants, bankers Small but growing class
Established Churches Established by government; Went where told, Forced to donate $, Controlled schools, Strict censorship, No free inquiry, research, publishing. Alliance of throne and altar Ruling class Hierarchy as natural Obedience as Christian duty
Exploration Early 15th century--Wealth, power, International presence Trade, commerce, modern economy God, Glory, Gold Better maps, Improvements in shipbuilding, And technology (Mostly from Muslim scientists)
Prince Henry the Navigator (1394 – 1460) sponsored Portugal's exploration. Western Africa, searched for gold. African slave trade into Iberian peninsula- Trading centers, forts
Christopher Columbus Westward route, Portugal rejected. Spain bankrolled (1492)- Reached India?????
Amerigo Vespucci New World, not India Named after him
Hernando Cortez Spanish Conquest of Aztecs. Defeated Montezuma 1519-20
Francisco Pizarro Spanish Conquest of the Inca 1530's. Peru, South America
Capitalism LIMITED--Prosperity might threaten social hierarchy How to protect interests of landed elites? Turned to mercantilism
Vasco da Gama (1497-8) Direct route to India, Circumnavigating Africa
Spice Trade from China, India, East Indies--Indian trade centers. Wanted to bypass the Muslims. Ultimately led to the New World
The Conquest Colonization-->North America, South America, Caribbean islands...Spain dominant
Slave Trade Field laborers More efficient, Labor-intensive crops: Sugar, molasses (biggest); Tobacco; Rum; Coffee; Cotton European/African traders-Dominated by Dutch and English Middle Passage horrors High death rate Brutal treatment Suicides
Encomienda Spanish Conquistador/Indian Peasant Manor
Conquistadors Spanish Aristocrat Conquer for Spain-->Spread gospel message/Crusading spirit, And make $$$$$. R&R: Labor, rent, respect; But to pay wages; Protect Indians; Christian instruction
Mercantilism Government management: Wealth fixed--Necessary--Government interests--> Government-granted monopolies Imported gold and silver Subsidies to new industries Tariffs on foreign goods Warfare Control of colonies Central banks
Triangle Trade/TransAtlantic Trade Manufactured goods, rum from Europe to Africa --> Slaves from Africa to New World --> New World crops to Europe
Absolutism All-powerful kings, Divine right: God’s ambassador Treason = blasphemy, Romans 13: “Obey the higher powers” Scandinavia Spain Portugal But failures ….. England Netherlands
Huguenots French Calvanists
Junkers Prussia Aristocrate
Romanovs Russian Dynasty of Peter the Great
Cardinal Mazarin Advisor to Louis 14.
Cardinal Richelieu “Advisor” to Louis 13, Villain in Three Musketeers, Architect of French absolutism. died in 1642, replaced with Cardinal Mazarin Persecuted Huguenots Controlled nobles Intendancy system Doubled taxes Methods copied by absolutists elsewhere
Jean Colbert King Louis 14 Financial Minister
Hohenzollern Dynasty Prussian King Frederick I
Bourbon Dynasty French--King Henry 4, Louis 13, Louis 14....
Edict of Nantes Peace Treaty between Catholics and Calvanists. Catholic gov't gave limited religious freedom to Calvanists. Henry 4
Intendancy System Local affairs supervised by royal intendant. Royal presence always controlling.
King Frederick I 1688 – 1713 Hohenzollern Dynasty Prussian King Won title King 1701 Prussia powerful, absolutist monarchy
Battle of Vienna Austria blocked Ottoman expansion at Vienna (1688) Crescent rolls (symbol of Ottomans) To celebrate Austrian princess later marries French prince Austrian crescent became ….
Prussia Duke Frederick William, Hohenzollern dynasty Barriers to absolutism Nobles hesitant Junkers Independent-minded Refused tax increases Weak military
Peter the Great 1689-1725 Russian King Romanov dynasty Traveled through the West Modernization program Including absolutism
Duke/Elector Frederick William Son King Frederick I began Hohenzollern Dynasty Prussia
The Fronde Nobility/Gentry/Bourgeouisie Rebellion Louis died 1643, son Louis XIV only 5 years old . Nobles and bourgeoisie rebelled: Mazarin crushed
Henry 4 France 1589-1610 Bourbon Dynasty--> Religious civil war, led Huguenots, converted when crowned. Popular w/ most, Peace, prosperity. Assas 1610 by a Catholic. Succeeded by son Louis 13 Edict of Nantes: Religious freedom in Huguenot towns Self-protection
Habsburg Dynasty As Austrian King-All Powerful As Holy Roman Emperor-No Power
Westernization Russian Nobles – 5 yy foreign education, Exposed to West Efficient bureaucracy: Intendant syst Tax collections.. Seized control of Orthodox Church: Became part of state Military, naval expansion: Life-long service for recruits Taxes increased 500%
Versailles Castle built by Louis 14 Symbol of his power King center of social life Access to king = power
St. Petersburg Became the new capital of Russia. Very westernized
Loius 14 (1643-1713) Most absolutist of all “I am the state” Affected by Fronde Continued previous policies Patronage Versailles Mercantilism Religious conformity Central police Foreign wars
Great Chain of Being God Kings Nobility and Church leaders Landowners and masters Servants, peasants, employees Poor Women Children
Patronage Dependence on king (Louis 14) Power from loyalty, not rebellion
Created by: Danbearjah