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T2 Inflammation

T2 PATHO Exam 1 review

is a systemic or local reaction of tissues and microcirculation to a pathogenic insult. Inflammation
Inflammation is characterized by the elaboration of ______ mediators as well as the movement of fluid and______ from the blood into extravascular tissues. inflammatory, leukocytes
Inflammation localizes and elimi- nates microorganisms, ____ cells and_____ particles, thereby paving the way for a return to normal structure and function. damaged cells, foriegn
3 factors that can injure tissue and cause inflammation Chemical agents, Physical agents, Pathogenic microorganism
Circulatory changes due to inflammation: Transient (short time) constriction of smooth muscles followed by _________ Vasodilation
Circulatory changes due to inflammation: Active ______ (excess of blood in vessels supplying an organ or tissue) Hyperemia
Circulatory changes due to inflammation: Increased _____ pressure ---> edema (accumulation of fluid within the extravascular compartment and interstitial fluid) Hydrostatic
Circulatory changes due to inflammation: speed of circulation ______ Decreases (circulation slows down)
Circulatory changes due to inflammation: RBC _____ formation (stacking up of red blood cells) Rouleaux
Why do red blood cells form a undergo rouleaux formation ? rouleaux forms to get Oxygen to the required site
Circulatory changes due to inflammation: Diapedesis involves reorganization of the____ and insertion of the_____ into the gaps of_____ cells. WBC(leukocytes), psedopods, endothelial
Characteristics of edema: Increased permeability of vessel wall and increased hydrostatic pressure causes > _____ (tends to occur in non inflammatory conditions) transudate
Characteristics of edema: Transudate is edema fluid with a ___ protein content (specific gravity __ 1.0). Low, (<)less than
Characteristics of edema : Exudate is edema fluid with a ___ protein concentration (specific gravity __1.0), which frequently contains _____ cells. high, (>) greater than 1 , inflammatory
3 Types of Exudate Serous, Fibrinous, Purulent
Type of exudate that has a yellow, straw-like color and is characterized by the absence of a prominent cellular response. Serous
Type of exudate contains large amounts of fibrin as a result of activation of the coagulation system. Fibrinous
Type of exudate contains cellular components. Purulent
Purulent Exudate is Associated with pathologic conditions such as______ bacterial infections in which the predominant cell type is the poly morphonuclear neutrophil (PMN). pyogenic
Mediators of Inflammation are divided into what 2 major groups ? Plasma Derived & Cell Derived
in Plasma Derived mediators are ______ to active inactive
in Cell derived mediators are stored in____ and_____ Leukocytes and Platelets
Mediators of inflammation are ______ diverse and _______ Biochemically, Multifunctional
Mediators of inflammation are Biochemically diverse because they include, among others ____ ____, ____, and _____ _____ derivatives biogenic amines, peptides, arachidonic acid
Mediators of inflammation are multifunctional as in they ? act on many cells and tissues
Mediator of Inflammation: Histamine is a biogenic amine (NH2), that is released from _____ and ___ cells Platelets, mast
Does Histamine increase or decrease the inflammatory response ? Increase
Histamine has a ___ action (immediate transient response) because it is inactivated by an enzyme called _______ Short, Histaminase
What Drug is an antagonist of the histamine H1 receptor, which blocks histamine activity ? Benadryl (diphenhydramine)
* The complement system is a group of plasma ____ produced by the___, circulating in an ____ form proteins, Liver,
Are the plasma proteins that produced by the liver always being used in the complement system ? NO THEY ARE NOT USED UNLESS THE BODY NEEDS IT !!!!
Activation of the complement system is through a ____ or____ pathway, to form > biologically active fragments, intermediate complexes, and terminal membrane attack complex (MAC). classical, alternative
The complement system activates what 4 mechanisms ? Opsonization, Anaphylaxis , Chemotaxis , Cell lysis
Mechanism activated by the complement system that consists of phagocytosis of bacteria Opsonization
Mechanism activated by the complement system that consists of histamine release with increased vessel wall permeability Anaphylaxis
Mechanism activated by the complement system that is the migration of leukocytes Chemotaxis
Mechanism activated by the complement system that follows membrane attack complex (MAC) ( break down of the cell) Cell lysis
Mediator of Inflammation: _____ has a similar action as histamine BUT it induces pain Bradykinin
Arachidonic acid is derived from ____ through the action of_____(enzyme). phospholipids, phospholipases
Arachidonic acid is further metabolized through what two pathways ? Lipoxygenase pathway , Cyclooxygenase
What is the pain PRODUCER in an inflammatory response ? Arachidonic acid
What drug stops the formation of Arachidonic acid by inhibiting the enzyme phospholipase ? Corcticosteroids (cortisol-produced by adrenal glands )
Arachidonic ----(cyclooxygenase/cox-1&2)-->Prostanoic Acid-->_____ &____ & ____ Thrombroxane, Prostocyclin, Prostoglandins (PGF2a)(PGE2)
What kind of drugs stops the formation prostaglandins by inhibiting the the enzyme cyclooxygenase ? NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs) (Asprin, Ibuprofen , Tylenol, Celebrex )
Prostacyclin is also produced from the _____ pathway of arachidonic acid. these are anti-____ agents cyclooxygenase , cancer
The COX-2 enzyme is involved in causing _____ pain and infllamation (in the knees for example _ arthritis
______ helps relive the arthritis pain and inflammation by ____ the COX-2 enzyme Celebrex , inhibiting
_____ helps in female labor process (needed with oxytocin) , this helps the uterine contract to exit baby PGE2
The 2 classifications of inflammation Acute & Chronic
Classification of inflammation that is short term and usually happens as a natural homeostasis process Acute Inflammation
Acute Inflammation is characterized by_____ blood flow, increased______ of vessels to cells, proteins, fluids and inflammatory cells (neutrophils or PMN) out in the____. increased, permeability, tissue
Classification of inflammation that persists over a longer period of time Chronic Inflammation
Chronic Inflammation is characterized by the presence of _____ , ______, & ____ ____ . There is a associated tissue ______ , scarring and granulation tissue formation. macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, destruction
Serous, Fibrinous, Purulent, ulcerative, pseudomembranous , granulomatous are all ______ forms of inflammation Pathologic
*Type of Pathologic inflammation that is the early stage of most inflammation & produce exudate. Serous inflammation
Type of Pathologic inflammation that have exudate of coagulated fibrin Fibrinous inflammation
*Type of Pathologic inflammation that is acute form of exudative inflammation in which the enzymes produced by white blood cells cause liquefaction of the affected tissues, resulting in the "formation of pus" Purulent inflammation
Type of Pathologic inflammation : necrosis on or near the surface leads to loss of tissue and creation of a local defect (ulcer). ulcerative inflammation
Type Patho inflam: acute inflammatory response to a powerful necrotizing toxin ( diphtheria toxin—bacterial toxin)characterized by formation on a mucosal surface of a FALSE membrane made of precipitated fibrin,necrotic epithelium,& inflammatory leukocytes pseudomembranous inflammation
Type of Pathologic inflammation : a form,usually chronic, attended by formation of granulomas. granulomatous inflammation
___is an inflammatory exudate formed within the tissues consisting of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), necrotic tissues, microorganisms, and tissue fluids. Pus
Pus is Usually pale yellow to yellow green, sometimes whitish, and sometimes ____ . bloody
____ infection (gram +/-) is its most common cause of pus formation Bacterial
Pus must be released so ____ process can begin Healing
____is swollen area of body tissue that contains pus within its capsule and if pressure is applied it can pop Abscess
when pressure is applied to an abscess what is formed that allows pus to release out of the skin ? Sinus
____ is abnormal or surgically made passage between 2 hollow or tubular organs (intestines) and the surface of the body or between 2 hollow or tubular organs allows for pus to flow from 1 spot to another Fistula
In healing Tissues can ____ ,or the repair takes place in the form of _____ Scarring
Healing and Repair Outcome depends on the type of cells forming the tissue of : – Continuously ____ cells (muscle and liver) – Quiescent facultative____ cells – Nondividing ____ cells dividing, mitotic, postmitotic
Which cells do not divide ? NEURONS
Fibroblasts Produce _____ Collagen
What does collagen do for skin tissue ? what happens to it with age ? What does it look like? can cosmetics produce it ? Keeps skin tissue strong. Diminishes with age. Looks like a rope. No, can only be produced by fibroblasts
Within HOURS after a injury to the skin ______ arrive and suture(close) the wound during the healing process Leukocytes
Within DAYS after a injury angiogenesis (blood vessels arrive) occurs near wound. _______ undergo degranulation at the wound site producing granulation tissue and _______ produce new collagen Macrophages, Fibroblasts
Within WEEKS after injury what does the granulation tissue(replaces old injured skin) forming a ____ Scar
What disease is associated with hyper extensive joints,hyper elasticity of skin, dissecting aortic aneurysms, rupture of the colon, and vessel instability resulting in skin hemorrhages. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS)
Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS) is caused by mutations which affects the _____ structure and______. collagen, synthesis
*WOUND HEALING PROCESS: (Cut/Injury in tissue)----leads to ---> ? (within hrs) Inflammatory response
*FIRST STEP in wound healing processes: Fibroblasts produce _______ , which gets converted to _____ . Fibroblasts will also produce ______ (immature) Fibronectin, Fibrin , Collagen III
* SECOND STEP in wound healing process : Angioblasts will produce new ___ ____ though a process called ______ . And myo-fibroblasts (hybrid cells between smooth muscles & fibroblasts). form the _______ tissue Blood vessels , Angiogenesis , granulation
* THIRD STEP of wound healing process : Production of ______ (mature) final stage of scar formation Collagen I
In Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS) what types of collagen are most affected ? Type 1 and Type 3
Transmission of (EDS) is based on what ? Mendelian genetics.
______ Scar formation can be a complication of scar formation Deficient
Separations of tissue margins, Excess scar formation , Keloid (collagen-III) , Large scars from burn are all types of ? Deficient scar formation
_____ Is an exuberant hypertrophic scar that tends to prog- ress beyond the site of initial injury and recurs after excision( comes back after removal) Keloid
Keloid is an area of irregular fibrous tissue associated with too much of what type of collagen ? Type 3 (high ratio of (type 3)/(type1)
An _____ is an inflammatory process caused by disease producing organisms Infection
"__" is the suffix used with the name of the tissue or organ to indicate and infection or inflammatory process . "itis" (ex..appendicitis,hepatitis,colitis)
Type of infection that has an acute spreading infection at any site Cellulitis
Type of infection associated with the breakdown of tissues and formation of pus Abscess
Type of infection associated with overwhelming infection where pathogenic bacteria gains access to bloodstream Septic Shock (septicemia)
Virulence factors influence the outcome of____ infection
is the ease of with which a pathogenic organism can overcome the defenses of the body Virulence of organism
a _____ virulent organism is one that produces disease in the majority of susceptible individuals Highly
A___ virulence organism is one that produces disease ONLY in highly susceptible individuals under FAVORABLE conditions Low
Created by: osabdelr