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Unit 7: Ethnicity

For AP Human Geography

Ethnicity A group who share a common identity. Was used as an alternative to term for race. It not just physical characteristics, it also about the person's social and cultural identity. Often illustrated through music, art, or religious traditions.
Ethnic Provinces The first ethnic group to establish cultural norms in an area. Also called the "first effective settlement" whose imprint affects modern cultural geo of a place. Cultural geo in the US was influenced by British and SW was influenced mainly by Spanish.
Diaspora Experiences of people who come from a common ethnic background but live in different regions or ethnic neighborhoods. Often used for Jews or blacks of African descent. Often illustrated through music, food, or religious traditions.
Ethnic Islands When entire regions become associated with ethnic or racial aggregations. Examples: Quebec, Canada; African-Americans in U.S Southeast; Native Americans in Oklahoma, southwest, northern plains, and prairies.
Charter Group Small, RURAL areas occupied by a single ethnic group. Are not urban ethnic enclaves or neighborhoods. Imprints are left through housing, barn style, and farmstead layouts. Formed in the US by Scandinavians in north central, Germans in Appalachians...etc
Syncretism Development of a new cultural trait from fusion of two distinct but interacting cultures. Big factor in cultural change as authentic cultural traits are changed to make them more appealing. Example: Dishes being modified to appeal to American taste.
Ethnic Enclaves A small area occupied by a distinct culture or ethnicity, resulting from chain migration. Example: Little Italy or Chinatown. Provides economic opportunities, community, and cultural traditions and items, making adaptation easier.
Social Distance Measure of the perceived differences btwn an immigrant ethnic group and the host society. Increases w/ differences btwn groups, decreasing the chance of the host group assimilating the newcomers. High distance = ethnic neighborhoods/enclaves last longer.
Ethnic Neighborhoods Concentrations of people from the same ethnicity in certain pockets of the city. Results from chain migration. Segregated communities of an ethnicity are called "ghettos". Ghettos are located in unfavorable parts of the city.
Ethnic Cleansing and Genocide Cleansing: The effort to rid a country or region of everyone of a certain ethnicity through forced migration or genocide. Genocide: A premeditated effort to kill everyone from a certain ethnic group.
Triangular Slave Trade The process where European ships left for Africa with cloth and other good to buy slaves, transported the slaves and gold to the Western Hemisphere (mainly the Caribbean), and then carried sugar and molasses back to Europe.
Sharecropper A person who works field rented from a landowners and pays the rent by turning over a share of the crops to the landowner. This system burdened poor African-Americans with huge debt and high interest rates.
Race Identity with a group of people who share a biological ancestor.
Apartheid The physical separation of different races into different geographic areas.
Nationality Identity with a group of people who share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular country.
Self-determination The concept that ethnicites have the right to govern themselves
Nationalism Loyalty and devotion to a nationality.
Centripetal Force An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state.
Multi-ethnic State A state that contains more than one ethnicity.
Balkanized A small geographic area that could not successfully be organized into one or more stable states because it was inhabited by many ethnicities with complex, long-standing antagonisms towards each other.
Balkanization The process by white a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities- as a threat to peace throughout the world, not just a small area.
Blockbusting Real estate agents convinced white homeowners living near a black area to sell their houses at low prices by feeding their fears that black families will move in and cause property value to decline. The houses are sold at a higher price to black families
Multinational State Contains two ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities.
Nation-state A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality.
Racism The belief that the race is a primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race.
Racist A person who subscribes to the beliefs of racism.
Created by: candykitty12
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