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A and P 231

A and P 231 Final at Pcc

Simply squamous epithelial passage of materials by diffusion and filteration, secretes lube,
strattified squamous epithelial thick membrane made of many layers, basement layers are cuboidal or collumnar (basale), surface cells are flat, When keartinized they have a layer of flat cells, protection from abrasion, non keratinized line the esophogus, mouth (remember chips).
Simple cuboidal epithelium cube shaped, secretion and absorption, located in the Kidney tubules, ducts and secretory portions of glands
stratified cuboidal epithelium 2 layers (usually), job is protection, location glands (salivary, mammary, sweat)
Simple columnar epithelium columns with nucleus towards "basement" or basale, Job is absorption, lines the intestinal track. Location in the guts or intestins.
stratified columnar epithelial many of layers elongated cells with nucleus at the base. Job is protection and secretion. Small amounts in the male uretha (rare)
transitional epithelium resembles cuboidal and columnar but is neither, stretches and twists enough to be used in the bladder with out tearing
psudeostratified columnar epthielium has cillia to move stuff out of the trachea, not stratified, trachea and secretion
Areolar gel matrix with 3 types fibers (fibroblast, macrophages, mast cells) Job: wraps and cushions. Location: widely distributed under the skin.
Adipose Desc: Sparse matrix, mostly made up of fat cells, nucleus pushed to outer edge of cell by fat droplet. Job: reserve fuel, insulation against heat loss, cushions for organs. Location: under skin, around kidneys & eyeballs, abdomen, breasts
Reticular Desc: Network of fibers (reticular) and reticular cells within the network. Job: fibers form a soft internal skeleton to support white blood cells, mast cells. Location: lymphoid organs
Dense Regular Desc: Mostly parallel collagen fibers made of fibroblast cells. Job: attaches muscles to bone or to other muscles and withstands great stress. Location: tendons and ligaments.
Dense Irrigular Desc: Mostly irregularly arranged collagen fibers, Fibroblast cells. Job: Able to stand tension exerted from many different directions. Location: dermis of skin, digestive tract, joints
Hyaline Desc: Firm matrix (collagen fibers make an impenatrable matrix), cells live in a lacuna. (CATEYE). Job: supports and reinforces, cushions, resists compressive stress. Location: cartilage in ribs, nose, laraynx.
Elastic Desc: close To hyaline but with more fibers. Job: maintains the shape of structure while allowing great flexibility. Location: ear
Fibrocartilage Desc: Cat eye, less firm than hyaline with thick collagen fiber. Job: Tensile strength with ability to absorb shock. Location: discs of knee joints and intevertebral discs.
Bone Desc: hard calcified matrix with collagen fibers. Job: support and protection, makes blood. Locations: bones
blood Desc: red and white blood cells in plasma matrix. Job: transport respiritory gases, nutrients, waste, Location blood vessels
Nuerons Desc: Nurons cells with branching cells processes. Job: transmit electrical signals from receptors to effectors, which control their activity. Location: brain spinal cord.
Skins 3 Layers Epidermis (on top), Dermis (middle), Hypodermis (deepest)
Epidermis layers (deep to superficial) Basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum (thick skin only), corneum
Dermis Layers Papillary (superficial) and Reticular (deeper)
Nerves of the Dermis Meissner (light touch); Pacinian (deep touch); Free (pain)
Glands of dermis sebacous, sweat (eccrine, apocrine) mammary, ceruminous (ear wax)
Sebacous Gland Oily gland attached to hair, used to lube and move hair
Sweat glands Eccrine: insensible perspiration. Apocrine: sensible (aware) perspiration, stinky sweat crotch and armpit.
bone parts Epiphysis (ends of bone). Diaphysis (shaft), Medullary Cavity, Red (makes blood) and yellow(makes fat) marrow.
Osteoblast builds bone cells
Osteoclasts destroys bone cells
epiphyseal plate where the two bone building sites meet. When they are done you stop growing
Osteon basic unit of bone
Central canal (Haversian) Main blood canal in bone
Canaliculus canals tiny canals radiating outward form the central canal to lacuna
Lamella Solid matrix
Lacuna place where bone cell resides
Perforating fibers (Sharpey's) between periosteum and bone matrix
Perforating Canals (Volkmann's) Canals that run perpendicular to the central canal
calcitonin hormone that makes osteoblasts turn on and make bone.
parathryoide hormone tells the osteoclasts to destroy bone
4 items that are needed for good bone growth Calcium (in diet), vitamin D, Wolfs law (if you stress a bone...bone gets thicker), Hormones estrogen
Joint Structure Fiberous, Cartilagenous, Synovial
Fiberous Joint type, function and location Suture (skull), Syndesmosis (ankle), gomphosis (teeth). Welding bones with fiber.
Cartilagenous type, function and location Fibrocartilage (symphysis), Hyaline (synchondrosis). Ribs and spine.
synovial type, function and location Bones held together by fluid in a membrane with synovial fluid, shoulder, ball and socket
Joint movement synarthrotic (no movement), Amphiarthrotic (some movement), Diarthrotic (lots of movement)
Joint movement and type of joints Fibrous (synarthrotic), Cartilagenous (amphiathrotic), Synovial (Diarthrotic)
periosteum membrane that covers all bones
endosteum incomplete cellular layer that lives in the medullary
the rule of f's Muscle>Bundles>cells>organelles>Chemicals or Filaments>>>> to Flesh>Fascicles>Fibers>Fibrils>Filaments
Connective tissue types around muscles Epimysium>Flesh, Perimysium>Fascicles, Endomysium>Fibers
Sarcoplasm cytoplasm for muscle cells
sarcolemma cell membrane for muscle cells
transverse tubules holes in the sarcolemma
sarcoplasmic reticulum ER for the muscles
filament myosin = thick, Actin=Thin
Contracting action on filaments Thin/actin filaments are the ones moving, Thick are the ones pulling the thin/actin.
9 Steps to muscle contraction 1. AP 2. calcium released from sr 3. Calcium binds to troponin. 4. troponin rotates the tropomyosin exposes binding site on actin. 5. myosin grabs actin. myosin pulls actin. Atp resets myosin, calcium. Tropomysin covers binding sites
aerobic respiration characteristics Glucose + Air (oxygen), lots of atp created, lasts for hours
anaerobic respiration characteristics glucose makes 2 atp lasts for 15 seconds, byproduct is lactic acid
White Fiber (Muscle Cell) Characteristics Large in diameter, more powerful and pull, low oxygen, anaerobic respiration, low endurance also called fast twitch
Red Fiber (Muscle Cell) Characteristics Smaller in diameter, less power, lots of blood, air mitochondria, areobic with high endurance
The motor unit When the nerve is talking to the muscle
Recruitment (Muscle) When the nerve "taps" more muscles fibers to get more power...the brain is in charge of recruitment.
Summation (muscle) When the nerve continues to fire...tells the muscle to keep going. "Keep" holding the pen
Glial Cell Types Astrocyte, microglial, ependymal, schwann, oligondrendrocyte
Astrocyte looks like a star, protects, feeds, loves
microglial small, immunity role
ependymal moves fluid along in the brain
schwann cell makes myelin sheath
oligondrendrocyte makes myelin sheath
neuron parts cell body, axon, dendrite
Flow of neural message through neuron in the dendrite and out the axon
Axon characteristics the output in a neuron, the bigger the wire the faster the message gets sent
Myelin sheath creates more insolation and that means that there is less leaking.
nerve sizes and locations big fat nerves in the eyeballs, small and thin in the stomach
nerve process 1. Depolarization: sodium goes in through "sodium channel" by diffusion. 2. Repolarization: potassium goes out of axon by way of diffusion. 3. sodium potassium pumps sodium out and potassium in at 3:2 rate.
nerve firing trigger point -55
nerve synapse 1. AP releases synapse. 2. calcium channels open. 3. calcium goes into presynaptic nerve. 4. vesicles are released into synapse. 5. NT released and bind to recepters on postsy 6. NT open the channels on postsy nerve. 7. reset by NT back to postsy
neurotransmitters Acetylcholine (ach), Gaba, Glutamate, Epinephrine, Dopamine, Seratonine
ACH excitory, Inhibitory, Location: muscles and guts
Gaba Inhibitory. Location: Everywhere
Glutamate Excitory: Everywhere
Epinephrine excitory: everywhere
dopamine excitory and inhibitory: brain and motor control
seratonine excitory. contentment. satisfied feeling
Monosaccharide (simple sugar0 polysaccharide (complex carb)
Amino acids to... Protiens (poly peptides)
fatty acids to... fats or lipids
nucleotides to... DNA, RNA, Nucleic acids
Hydrophillic Dissolves in water or water loving
hydrophobic does not dissolve in water (fats)
Created by: boone.reavis