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APA History

Hippodamus 5th c BC - pioneered the street grid
Tenement House Law (1901) Minimum Standards for Housing
Zoning Resolution (1916) Limited land uses and development intensity
Central Park (1859) Olmsted US first landscaped public park
City Beautiful Movement (1893) Burnham Plan for Chicago (1909), started with Columbian Exhibition (1893) which was partially designed by Burnham (White City)
Garden City Movement (1898) Ebenezer Howard “Garden Cities of To-morrow." The “town-country” - meant to address overcrowding of cities with small towns separated by green belts
Letchworth (1909) First garden city
Riverside, Illinois (1868) Olmsted and Calvert Vaux - Model curved street "suburb" that focused on rural amenities.
Radburn, NJ (1929) Inspired by Garden City Movement, precursor to the New Deal’s New Towns. Included pedestrian paths, residential “superblocks” and early use of cul-de-sac.
Greenbelt Towns Several early 20th c. (mostly ‘20s and ‘30s) neighborhoods and suburbs (i.e. Greenbelt, MD, Greenhills, OH). Designed under guidance of Rex Tugwell (in FDR admin) and “Resettlement Administration.
New Towns Created started in 1960s, were planned residential towns inspired by Garden Cities/ Greenbelt Towns (i.e. Reston, Va., Columbia, Md.)
New Urbanism (1982) Andres Duany. Seaside, Fl. (1984). Focuses on walkable, “traditional” neighborhoods. Includes the “Transect” model to help guide development in specific areas, from rural to urban.
City Efficient Movement (1900s/1920s) Focused on addressing urban issues and making cities “function” better (i.e. zoning, fiscal planning) in addition to beautification, manage increasing public works projects due to ascent of private auto
SSZEA - Standard State Zoning Enabling Act Federal - allowed for division of localities for zoning/planning purposes
SCPEA - Standard City Planning Enabling Act (1927) Followup to SSZEA, more detail about master planning, planning commission, subdivision
City Functional Movement (1940s) Emphasis on functionalism and administrative efficiency
Modern suburbia / mass-production housing William Levitt 1940s/50s (Levittown, NY/PA)
Patrick Geddes Early 1900s - introduced concept of “region” to planning
Regional Plan for New York and its Environs (1929) Regional Plan Association looked at spokes and concentric circles as means of regional circulation
National Conference on City Planning (1909) Divisions in views of planning evident at conference - planning as improving social welfare (proponent: Benjamin Marsh), vs planning as promoting physical growth and development (proponent: Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr.).
ACPI - American City Planning Institute Founded in 1917, forerunner to AICP. Aimed to establish planning as a profession. Renamed to Am. Inst. of Planners (AIP) in 1939. ASPO (Am. Society of Planning Officials) formed in 1934. ASPO and AIP merged in 1978 to become APA.
Radiant City (1920s-30s) Le Corbusier. Grand Ideas/ administrative area/open space/ apartment blocks in park/ Modernism
Concentric Ring Theory (1925) Ernest Burgess/ Theory of the city as concentric rings that are different zones of activity. CBD is surrounded by an industrial zone, surrounded by a “zone of transition,” etc. Less intense uses the farther out from CBD.
Broadacre City (1932) Frank Lloyd Wright. Suburban idealist utopia where American families would be given an acre of Federal land to settle. Based on orthogonal grid and auto-dependent
Central Place Theory (1933) Christaller. Hierarchical structure where a “central place” supplies goods and services to surrounding areas. Assumes uniform distribution of natural resources.
Sector Theory (1939) Homer Hoyt. Outward growth for each sector/use. Follows transportation (highways, rail, etc.). Unable to explain leapfrog development, but informs theories such as “favored quarter,” where certain (upscale) uses shoot out along a certain axis from CBD.
Multiple Nuclei Theory (1945) Harris and Ullman. Multiple smaller business districts on outskirts of CBD with housing for workers. Transportation like air and rail which can devalue land values and location of manufact near resources. Flat terrain, even resources, transp costs
Bid Rent Theory (1960) William Alonso. Price of real estate change with distance from CBD. Supports the Concentric Ring theory. Trade-offs between proximity to CBD and access to amenities. Industry wants to be close to the CBD to take advantage of linkages, residential out
Urban Realm (1964) Vance. Multi-faceted nature of modern metropolis. Edge cities have outskirts that blend into the outskirts of the CBD and compete with the CBD for resources and population. “New Downtown” like the original downtown and suburban centers. Bay Area.
Growth Machine Theory (1970s) Harvey and Molotch. Development in cities is pushed forward by a “land-based elite,” and cities compete for growth against each other at the expense of taxpayers. Cities produce wealth for those in power.
Edge City (1991) The creation of centers of population outside of the urban core in the automobile age, basically. Boomers – The most common type, having developed incrementally around a shopping mall or highway interchange. Greenfields. Uptowns.
Smart Growth/Sustainability (1990s) A movement to work to preserve greenfields and wooded space by focusing development on existing clusters of development, keeping development more compact and dense. Maryland is well-known for its Smart Growth legislation, which has had mixed reviews.
Synoptic Rationality A structured process of decision-making that seeks to maximize the achievement of desired goals (ends) by careful consideration of potential consequences of available alternatives (means). Planning = optimization.
Satisficing Simon. Decision-making strategy where available alternatives are considered until acceptable threshold is met. Meant to compensate for human time and ability limitations in finding “optimal” solutions.
Incrementalism Charles Lindblom. Rational, but with emphasis not on optimal decision-making but on creating slow, bit-by-bit progress. Focus on a limited objective that would be achieved by policy, with outlined options available and would achieve a “partial solution.”
Transactive Planning John Friedman. Planning not focused on data analyses and field surveys, but with public engagement and dialogue with constituents (face-to-face) throughout the process. Focus on process and decentralization of the process.
Advocacy Planning Davidoff. From the 1960s, a reaction to planner as neutral technician and optimizer in public interest (singular). Planners must acknowledge the inbalance of power and influence, and must serve (have a social responsibility to) the underserved.
Equity Planning Krumholz in Cleveland, focuses on the redistribution of resources and leverage to those who are underserved and underserviced.
Radical Planning Alinsky. Stresses importance of personal growth, cooperative spirit, and freedom from manipulation by anonymous forces. Point of departure consists of specific substantive ideas about collective actions that can achieve concrete results in the immediate f
Utopianism Wide, sweeping changes through design. Think of FLW’s Broadacre City and Le Corbusier’s work with the Radiant City
Social Learning A means of identifying inputs and seeking outcomes through the expansion of planning paradigms, close public collaboration, and learning from working with public to tweak paradigm.
Philadelphia Plan (1682) William Penn and Thomas Holme. Grids and parks.
Annapolis Plan (1695) Francis Nicholson. Radiocentric.
Savannah Plan (1733) Oglethorpe. Ward park system.
Washington DC (1791) L'enfant. Grid and radials.
Pullman, IL (1880) George Pullman. Model industrial town.
First modern land use zoning in US San Francisco in 1867. Forbade slaughterhouses in districts.
First manage tenement house controls New York City in 1867/1879.
First official and permanent local planning board Hartford in 1907.
First planning association Washington DC in 1909.
First state enabling legislation permitting cities to plan Wisconsin
First land use zoning ordinance Los Angeles
First comprehensive zoning ordinance New York in 1916.
First comprehensive plan Cincinnati in 1925.
1949 Housing Act First comprehensive housing legislation. Aimed to construct 800,000 housing units. Inaugurated urban renewal.
1954 Housing Act Stressed slum prevention and urban renewal rather than slum clearance and urban redevelopment. Stimulated general planning for cities under 25,000 (Section 701). 701 funding later extended to foster statewide, interstate, and substate regional planning.
Mixed Scanning Theory (1967) Amitai Etzioni. “Bounded” instrumental rationality simplifies the world less than incrementalism.
Kevin Lynch (1960) Imageability. Paths, edges, nodes, landmarks, districts.
Sherry Arnstein Ladder of participation. Citizen power, degrees of tokenism, non-participation.
Lawrence Susskind Communicative Planning. The public interest is revealed through the interaction of stakeholders seeking to negotiate desired outcomes within well-structured processes.
Created by: consterr
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