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Chapter 21

Bohemia a place where the Prague Conference took place and Austroslavism was developed during 1848
Frederick William IV Prussian King who rejected the liberal constitution
Quadruple alliance Austria, Russia, Prussia, and Great Britain made an alliance against France.
Congress system Congress System European international relations controlled by series of meetings held by great powers to monitor and defend status quo.
William Wordsworth (1771-1855) believed that all natural things were sacred and his poetry often expressed a mystical appreciation of nature
Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834) he and William Wordsworth both published Lyrical Ballad, one of the most influential literacy works in the history of English language
Lord Byron (1788-1824) Died fighting for Greek independence against the Turks in 1824
Percy Bysshe Shelly (1792-1822) detailed the revolt of humans against a society that oppresses them
Grimm's Fairy Tales collection of German folk stories
Greek Revolution Supported by Romantic writers, Greeks wanted revival of democracy and separation from Ottoman Empire, independence granted in Treaty of London
"Eastern Question" diplomatic problem posed in the 19th and early 20th centuries by the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire, centering on the contest for control of former Ottoman territories.
Revolutions of 1830 The _______ occurred because Louis XVIII only granted a small percentage of people the right to vote and Charles X attack of Algeria and as a result, he censored the press and limited the voting rights of the wealthy
July Revolution ends the Bourbons dynasty and installs Louis Philippe, the Duke of Orleans, as "King of the French" the success was due in large part to the revolutionary actions of the artisans, shopkeepers, and workers of Paris.
Tories politcal party in britain that supported traditional political and social institutions against the forces of reformer
Corn law 1815 English law prohibits the importation of foreign grain. This makes domestic grain more expesive and in turn makes the
Peterloo massacre 1819 An orderly protest that was savagely broken up by armed cavalry. The reason for protest was for the repeal of the Corn Laws which brought widespread unemployment and postwar economic stress.
Whigs a member of the British reforming and constitutional party that sought the supremacy of Parliament and was eventually succeeded in the 19th century by the Liberal Party
Reform bill of 1832 Considered a milestone in british history, increased number of voters from 6% of population to 12%
Factory act of 1831 No child labor under age 9
William Wilberforce An evangelical christian who saw slavery as a sin in the eyes of god
Second French Republic The republican government of France between the 1848 Revolution and the 1851 coup by Louis -Napoleon Bonaparte which initiated the second empire.It officially adopted the motto Liberte ,Elegalit,Fraternite
"June Days" Revolution In the early days of the second French Revolution it was a civil uprising in Paris the new government instituted numerous radical reforms , but the new assembly composed mainly of moderate and conservative candidate -June 23-26
Giuseppe Garibaldi An Italian general and politician that played a huge role in Italian history considered to be Italy's "fathers of fatherland"
Magyars A nation and an ethnic group native to and primarily associated with Hungarian people
Chartists Their demands included making charts of universal manhood suffrage, secret ballots, equal electoral districts, and salaries for members of the House of Commons,
Anti-Corn Law League Led by Richard Cobden and John Bright which argued for lower food prices
Revolutions of 1848 A series of revolts against European monarchies which were influenced by nationalism, liberalism, and romanticism
Congress of Vienna A conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel Von Metternich held from September 1814- June 1815
Klemens Von Metternich Austria's foreign minister who wanted balance of power in an international equilibrium of political and military forces that would discourage aggression
Legitimacy, compensation, balance of power Returning power to the ruling families deposed by more than two decades of revolutionary warfare/ territorially rewarding those states which had made sacrifices to beat Napoleon/ arrangement of map to limit power of one state
German confederation (bund) This enhanced Austrian influence over the German states; maintained napoleons reorganization ; loose confederation where members remained virtually sovereign
Concert of Europe Included arrangements to guarantee enforcements of the status quo as defined by the Vienna settlement
J.W.M. Turner An English Romantic landscape painter and watercolorist, whose style can be said to have laid the foundation for Impressionism. Showed power and terror of nature
John Constable most notable romantic painter-fascinated by nature-gentle Wordsworthian landscapes in which human beings were at one with their environment
British House of Parliament A prime example of gothic architecture that occurred during the romantic period of art
Ludwig van Beethoven a German composer and pianist; a crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras
Decembrist Uprising, 1825 Political revolt in Russia in 1825; led by middle level army officers who advocated reforms
Classical liberalism Philosophy that places the main point of emphasis on the individual
Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations, 1776 a book that offers one of the world's first collected descriptions of what builds nations' wealth and is today a fundamental work in classical economics.
David Ricardo, "iron law of wages" a proposed law of economics that asserts that real wages always tend towards the minimum wage necessary to sustain the life of the worker
Louis Philippe "Bourgeoisie King" His reign, known as the July Monarchy, marked the triumph of the wealthy bourgeoisie and a return to influence of many former Napoleonic officials
Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian politician, journalist, and activist for the unification of Italy
Young Italy was a political movement founded in 1831 by Giuseppe Mazzini
Risorgimento the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century
John Stuart Mill, On Liberty (1849) a British philosopher, political economist and civil servant. He was an influential contributor to social theory, political theory and political economy. He has been called "the most influential English-speaking philosopher of the nineteenth century".
Johann Gottfried Herder was a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic. He is associated with the periods of Enlightenment, Sturm und Drang, and Weimar Classicism.
Volksgeist German word for for a unique "spirit" possessed collectively by each people or nation
Louis Blanc This man urged people to agitate for universal voting rights and to take control of the state peacefully
Charles Fourier French sociologist and reformer who hoped to achieve universal harmony by reorganizing society
Immanuel Kant The greatest German philosopher who defined the Enlightenment as "man's leaving his self-caused immaturity" and separated science and morality into separate branches of knowledge.
Sturm and Drang German literary movement focusing on the emotional, action-filled subjects, such as the individual's rebellion against society.
George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel German Philosopher and historian (1770-1831) who believed in the Hegelian Dialectic, that ideas are the driving force of history, and in history being progressive.
Dialectic Theory that ideas are the driving force of history.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe one of the greatest Germanic Romantic authors, wrote Sorrows of the Young Werther and Faust
Victor Hugo Romanticism in his novels was evident with his fantastic characters, strange settings, and human emotions, wrote Hunchback of Notre Dame; Les Miserables
Caspar David Friedrich Wanderers Above the Mist (1818), mystical view of the sublime power of nature was conveyed in many of his paintings
Eugéne Delacroix Liberty Leading the People (1830) is his most famous work for his portrayal of the 1830 Revolution in France, most famous French romantic painter, interested in exotic and dramatic use of color
Created by: birmingham