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Chapter 24

AP Euro - Life in the Emerging Urban Society

Second Industrial Revolution Four Major Aspects: 1. Steel Production 2. Oil 3. Electricity 4. Chemicals
Urbanization Britain was the first large European country to experience urban growth Population of Europe increased by 50% between 1870 and 1914 Better medical knowledge, better nutrition and housing were key reasons Number of children per family fell,
Public Health Movement Sought to remedy the high disease and mortality rate that occurred in cities
Edwin Chadwick He became most important reformer of living conditions in cities
“sanitary idea” most important: believed disease could be prevented by cleaning up the urban environment
Georges von Haussmann redeveloped Paris: Wide boulevards (partially to prevent barricades) Better middle-class housing on the outskirts of the city Demolition of slums Creation of parks and open spaces
fin de siècle end of the century
“Belle Époque” Increased standard of living in all industrialized countries "The Good Old Days" Increased leisure time resulted along with increased money to spend
Louis Pasteur’s germ theory (1822-1895) developed germ theory of disease
pasteurization fermentation caused by growth of living organisms and the activity of these organisms could be suppressed by heating the beverage.
Joseph Lister developed “antiseptic principle” in performing surgeries.
Dmitri Mendeleev (1834-1907): organized the rules of chemistry by devising the table in 1869.
Michael Faraday, electromagnetism Basic discoveries on electromagnetism in the 1830s and 1840s resulted in the first dynamo (generator) Applied to development of electric motors, electric lights, and electric streetcars
Charles Darwin, On the Origin of Species Theory of evolution: All life had gradually evolved from a common ancestral origin in an unending “struggle for survival”; species most able to adapt survived. Impact on religion: His theory refuted literal interpretation of the Bible (Genesis)
Herbert Spencer, Social Darwinism applied Darwin’s ideas to human society Survival of the fittest”
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Considered one of the three giants of 19th -century thought (along with Darwin and Marx) In contrast to the rationalism of the Enlightenment, Freud believed that humans were largely irrational creatures
Marie Curie (1867-1934) & Pierre Curie (1859- 1906) Discovered the first radioactive element (radium) in 1910
Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937) Split the atom in 1919: postulated the structure of the atom with a positively charged nucleus and negatively charged electrons
Max Planck (1858-1947) Quantum theory: subatomic energy is emitted in uneven little spurts called “quanta,” not in a steady stream, as previously thought.
Albert Einstein (1879-1955) Theory of Relativity E = mc^2:Matter and energy are interchangeable and that even a particle of matter contains enormous levels of potential energy
Theory of Relativity Time and Space Challenged traditional ideas of Newtonian physics. Theorized that time and space are relative to the viewpoint of the observer and only the speed of light is constant for all frames of reference in the universe.
Realism Belief that literature and art should depict life as it really was
Honoré de Balzac (1799-1850): The Human Comedy -- depicts urban society as grasping, amoral, and brutal, characterized by a Darwinian struggle for wealth and power
Gustave Flaubert (1821-1880): Madame Bovary Portrays the provincial middle class as petty, smug, and hypocritical
Thomas Hardy (1840-1928): Tess of the d'Urbervilles Portrayed a woman who was ostracized for having pre-marital sex
Emile Zola (1840-1902): giant of realist literature Portrayed seamy, animalistic view of workingclass life
George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans) (1819-1880)-- examined ways in which people are shaped by their social class as well as their own inner strivings, conflicts, and moral choices.
Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910) – greatest Russian realist Fatalistic view of history but regards love, trust, and everyday family ties as life’s enduring values
Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906) – “father of modern drama” His plays examined the conditions of life and issues of morality, often at odds with the Victorian views of the day
Gustave Courbet, The Stone Breakers (1819-1877) Coined the term, “realism”
Francois Millet, The Gleaners (1814-1875) The Gleaners, 1857: Depicts farm women gleaning the fields after the harvest
Edgar Degas (1834-1917) Laundry Girls Ironing,1884: Depicts ordinary women performing unskilled labor
Created by: Jrod42