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Anatomy

Nervous System

QuestionAnswer
Structurally, the nervous system consists of which two subdivisions Cantral and Peripheral
Clusters of neuron cell bodies located outside the CNS are called Ganglia
Which functional divisions of the nervous system includes the SNS and ANS? Motor
In the PNS, components of the afferent division include Sensory neurons
Which effectors are innervated by visceral motor neurons? Cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands
Spinal Cord Meninges Protect and encapsulated by spinal cord meninges, which are continues with cranial nerves
Dura Mater Outside most layer, first layer, most external layer, sac around spinal cord
Subarachnoid Space Is a real space filled with CSF
Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF) All nutrients are carried here, made from blood
Pia Mater Innerost layer adheres directly to the spinal cord
White Matter Myelinated axons, Laid down by Schwann cells
Dermatone Maps All spinal nerves except C1 innervate a segment of skin, Follows a segmental pattern along the body
4 Types of nerve plexuses Cevical, Brachial, Lumbar, Sacral
There are____ spinal nerves 31
Spinal nerves consists of... Motor and sensory axons
Cervical Plexus Group of nerves that distribute to nack and diaphragm, Phrenic nerve
Phrenic Nerve Controls breathing
Brachial Plexus Formed by anterior Rami of: C5-T1, innervates pectoral girdle and entire upper limbs
3 roots of brachial plexus Superior, Middle, Inferior Trunks
Extrafusal Muscle The skeletal muscle that makes up the bulk of the entire muscle
3 Cords of the of the brachial plexus Posterior, Medial, Lateral Cords
5 Terminal branches of the brachial plexus Axillary nerve, Median Nerve, Musculocutaneous Nerve, Radial Nerve, Ulnar Nerve
Lumbar Plexus Formed by the anterior rami:L1-L4
Choroid Plexus Produces CSF
Pons Redirection center, involved in interconnection & integration of cerebral cortex, cerebellar & brainstem
Pituitary Gland Anterior and posterior pituitary hormones
Longitundinal Fissure Separates lobes of the brain
Broca's Area Gives you motor speech
Parietal Lobe Motor ability, covered by parietal bone
Occipital Lobe Vision processing, covered by occipital bone, stores visual memories
Hemisphere Lateralization Runs down one side
Afferent (Sensory Neurons) Carry signals toward the nervous system
Commisure Connects right and left sides of the horns
Main nerve of the posterior division of the Lumbar plexus Femoral nerve
Main nerve of the posterior division of the Lumbar plexus Obturator nerve
Longest and largest nerve in the sacral plexus and in the entire body Sciatic nerve
Sciatic nerve is composed of 2 divisions wrapped in a common sheath Tibial portion and common fibular portion
Nerve plexus Network of nerevs
5 main branches of the sciatic nerve Tibial nerve, common fibular nerve, deep fibular nerve, superficial fibular nerve
Reflexes may be... Monosynaptic--- one neuron involved, Polysynaptic--- More than 2 neurons involved
Hippocampus Involved in formation of long term memory
Hydrocephalus Water on the brain. Cerebral aqueduct does not open up.
Cerebrum 5 lobes divided by fissures
Interventicular Foramen Connects lateral ventricles with 3rd ventricles
Intercostal Nerves Do not form a plexus with the exception of T1
Fourth Ventricle Space under cerebellum
Hypothalamus Site for major neural autonomic & endocrine integration and control. Produces 6 hormones
Thalamus Filters & selects sensory information. The "Gateway" to the cerebral cortex. Side of 3rd ventricle. Final relay point for sensory info
Pineal gland Involved in carcadian rhythms using melatonin. Storage of melatonin
Epidural space Lies between the dura mater & the periosteum covering the inner walls of the vertebrae. Outside of dura mater
Corpus Callosum Connects right and left cerebral hemispheres. Communication between right and left cerebral hemispheres. Made up of axons
Alpha Motor Neurons Neurons responsible for contraction of the extrafusal muscle.
Central Sulcus Everything goes to the central sulcus. Posterior--- Sensory, Anterior--- Motor
Frontal Lobe Speech, Motor in function
Precentral gtrus (primary motor cortex) Controls fine motor
Gyrus Folds in the cerebrum, increase surface area
Wernicke's Area Speech, Recognizes and comprehends spoken and written languages, nuclei---gray matter
Postcentral Gyrus (primary somatosensory cortex) Perception of sensation from skin and muscle, sensory, Mass of nervous tissue in parietal lobe, immediately posterior to the central sulcus
Gray Commissure Contains unmylelinated axons & serves as a communication route between left and right sides.
Temporal Lobe Generally sensory in function
Insular Cortex Communication in Limbic system, gives you feelings, stores visual memories. Memory and interpretation of taste. Not visible, communicates all lobes
Gray Matter Dendrites and cell bodies of neurons, unmyelinated axons and glial cells, centrally located in spinal cord
Primary Visual Cortex Recieves & processes incoming visual information
Midbrain Aqueduct (Cerebral Aqueduct) Connects the 3rd and 4th ventricle
Motor (Efferent) Carry signals out of the nervous system
Central Nervous System (CNS) Inside dorsal body cavity
Midbrain Involved in interconnection & integration of cerebral cortex and brainstem
Arachnoid Space Deep to the dura mater and the subdural space
Third Ventricle Slit like space in the center of the diencephlon
Nerve Plexuses are... Network of interweaving anterior rami of spinal nerves
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Outside the dorsal body cavity, nerves and ganglia
Autonomic Nervous System control smooth muscle or glands, part of the motor nervous system
Somatic Motor (SNS) Control skeletal muscle
Sacral Plexus Left and right sacral plexuses formed by the anterior rami of L4-S4
Nucleus Center that displays discrete anatomic boundries
Nerve Axon bundle extending through the PNS
Intrafusal Muscle Specialized skeletal muscle fibers that make the muscle spindle
Superior Trunk of the brachial plexus Nerves C5-C6
Gamma Motor Neurons Neurons responsible for contraction of the intrafusal muscle
Middle trunk of the brachial plexus Nerve C7
Medulla Oblongata Involved, in part, in respiration, BP and heart rate
Septum Pellucidum Separates lateral ventricles
Amygdala Involved with feeling emotion
Inferior trunk of the brachial plexus Nerves C8-T1
Basal Nuclei (Ganglia) Modifies cerebral cortical commands after evaluating signals from cerebral cortex, cerebellum and brainstem
Lateral ventricles Wing like spaces under cerebral hemispheres
A reflex arc may be... Ipsilateral---same side, Contralateral ---different sides
Golgi Tendon Organs Sensory Neurons Inhibitory interneurons are stimulated by the sensory neurons
Sensory Nervous System consists of Somatic Sensory and Visceral Sensory
Motor Nervous System consists of Somatic motor and Autonomic motor, Transmits nerve impulse from CNS to a muscle or gland.
Sensory Nervous System Transmits impulses from the PNS to the CNS, includes pain, touch, pressure and temp
Created by: tinks83