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KERR exams 4

nervous system

dendrites bring info into nerve cell body
axon carries motor impulses away from neuron
nissl substance grainy material in cytoplasm; consists of rough ER
myelin sheath insulator; represents concentric wrappings of lipids
nodes of Ranvier gaps; act to increase speed of nerve impulses down the axon
3 layers endoneurium,perineurium, epineurium
what do neurons make? proteins
what do schwann cells make? insulation
neuroglial cells do what? support
4 types of nueroglial cells astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglial, and ependymal cells
astrocytes basis of the blood-brain barrier
oligodendrocytes form the lipoprotein myelin for axons in the CNS
microglial cells the smallest and least numerous; phagocytic; they engulf invading microorganisms and dead/injured neurons
ependymal cells form the choroid plexus epithelium that secretes the cerebrospinal fluid
rough ER does what? protein synthesis
golgi apparatus does what? package synthesized products
schwann cells create? myelin
what are the interveniing depressions of the cerebral cortex? sulci
the lateral sulcus divides what lobes? frontal and parietal
precentral cortex is..?? the primary motor cortex which governs control of voluntary skeletal muscle function
premotor cortex responsible for complex intergrated motions
prefrontal cortex concerned with behavior and short term memory
broca's area controls motor speech
poostcentral cortex recieves initial info from 5 senses
occipital lobe responds to visual info
temporal lobe responds to auditory info
primary auditory cortex recieves sound impulses
auditory associtaion cortex interprets sound
wernicke's area responsible for comprehensive understanding of language
the limbic system governs? emotions, behavior and memory
the thalamus functions to distribute the incoming sensory info to regions of cerebral cortex
the hypothalamus regulates hormone release from pitutairy gland
pineal body thought to play a role in regulation of production and release of melatonin
optic nerve carries...? visual info to the retina
oculomotor nerve provides..? motor innervation to 4 of the 6 extraocular eye muscles as well as SM of iris
the trochlear and abducens nerves provide...? motor innercation 1 of the remaining eye muscles
trigeminal nerve provides motor innervation to the muscles of mastication and carry sensory info from the face, mucous mmembrances of mouth the teeth and the cornea
facial nerve provides...? motor innervation to muscles of facial expression
glossopharryngeal nerve supplies..? muscles of pharynx and conveys senestaion from taste buds
vagus nerve wanders through body providing motor innervation to muscles of parynx
hypoglossal nerve provides...?? motor innervation to tonngue muscles for speech and to assist in swallowing
4 brain ventricles two lateral ventricels (right and left), a single third and a 4th
the pituitary stalk suspends...? the pituitary gland
tumors in the pituitary gland may...? produce alterations to vision
the circle of willis is believed to...? equalize the blood pressure and blood flow between the 2 hemispheres
gray matters requires more what than the white matter blood
what is most susceptible to stroke and embolism? the internal carotid arteries
31 pairs of spinal nerves 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 1 coccyxgeal
sensory nerves bring info...? IN
3 layers of meninges dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater
dura mater "hard mother" and is outermost component
arachnoid mater "spider mother" has web like projections
subarachnoid space contain cerebrospinal fluid
pia mater "tendor mother" covers surface of cord and brain
meningitis meningi get inflamed
epidural space iss..? outside the dura mater
the wall of the eyeball is comprised of...? 3 coats/tunics....the fibrous tunic, the vascular tunic, the nervous tunic
the retina is in what tunic the nervous tunic
the superior rectus and inferior rectus 2/6 extraocular muscles
what is the fibrous tunic? the "white of the eye"
the suspensory ligament...? alters the shape of the lens
the iris..? is the colored portion of the eye, and contains 2 groups of smooth muscle that control the size of the pupil opening
optic disc "blind spot"; insensitive to light
fovea centralis area of greatest visual acuity
the eyeball has 2 types of fluids known as humors, contained within 3 chambers- posterior, anterior and vitreous
the ear is housed within the protective petrous portion of the temporal bone
the external ear contains... the auricle, external auditory meatus and tympanic membrane (eardrum)
the ext. auditory meatus includes... hair, sebaceous glands and modified sweat glands known as ceruminous glands that secrete wax
the middle ear cavity contains... 3 ossicles, and the eustachian tube
the inner ear incluedes 3 semicircular canals for balancethe cochlea for sound detectionand the vestible
sound causes... vibration of the tymphanic membrane which results in movement of the auditory ossicles
what moves when, when sound is heard 1. malleus moves2. incus3. stapes
the vestibular division recieves... sensory impulses from vestibule and ampullae of semicircular canalss conveying info on equilibirum and balance
the chochlear division... transmits sensory info on hearing from the cochlea
the cochlea is shaped like a sea shell
Created by: melissan15