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Typically induces cell transformation Proto-oncoogene
The development of cancer cells.Cancer cells commonly inactivate inhibitor growth signals, evade apoptosis, have a limitless replicative potential, invade tissue, a sustained mutagenesis and undergo angiogenesis Oncogenesis
Growth factors/receptors, Signal Transduction pathways, Transcription factors, Cell cyle control proteins, DNA repair enzymes, Apoptosis Proteins Examples of oncogenes
Point mutation, Chromosomal translocation, Multiple copies of DNA, Frame shift mutation Mechanisms in which proto-ocogenes become oncogenes
Regulates the G1 phase of the cell cycle Cyclin D
Cyclin D binds to CDK 4/6
Inhibitors of the cell cycle. Help to control the progession through the cell cycle Cylin Dependent Inhibitors (CDI)
The formation of cyclin D/CDK 4/6 complex is inhibited by p15, p16, p18, p19
Most cyclin/cdk complexes are inhibited by p21
p21 is activated by p53
This monitors DNA damage and activates p21 to inhibit cell division p53
A monomeric G protein and a proto-oncogene Ras
An example of a tumor suppressor Retinoblastoma (Rb)
DNA repair is initiated by p53
Tumor suppressor genes become oncogenic by Deletions, Point mutations, DNA methylation
A loss-of-function mutation is an example of tumor suppressors
A gain-of-function mutation is an example of proto-oncogenes
Ras directly activates Raf
MEK directly activates MAPK
MAPK activates Fos (a transcription factor)
Ras induces cell proliferation True
Hedgehog is a proto-oncogene True
The EGF receptor is an example of a proto-oncogene True
The mitochondrial pathway and the membrane receptor pathway are two type of mechanisms that induce Apoptosis
Activation of caspase-8 induces apoptosis True
Activation of the ... receptor activate apoptosis through the activation of caspase-8 Death
The activation of the ... pathway is elicited through the activation of Apaf-1, Cyt c, ATP, and pro-caspase-9 Mitochondrial
Bcl-2 is an Anti-apoptotic protein
Bax is a Pro-apoptotic protein
The idea that more than one mutation is required for a normal cell to become a tumor Multiple Hit Hypothesis
Benzopyrene (cigarettes), Aflatoxin B, Reactive oxygen species, DNA crosslinking agents, and Alkylating agents are chemicals that can cause DNA damage
The inability to repair thymine dimers which are caused by UV irradiation Xeroderma pigmentosum
Multiple TTAGGG repeats found at the ends of chromosomes Telomeres
The enzyme responsible for creating telomeres and is often inactivated in adult cells but activated during oncogenesis Telomerase
Defined as a limited capacity to divide before cells enter a non-proliferate state Senescence
Caused by a translocation of the myc gene from chromosome 8 to 14 Burkitt Lymphoma
Caused by a translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
Created by: mhaynes