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Chapter 2

Membranes, Skin Layers, Muscles, Fractures, Glands

Mucous Membranes Line the interior walls of organs and tubes opening to the outside of the body, such as those of the digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive systems.
Serous Membranes Lines cavities, including the thoracic cavities and internal organ's (eg. heart)
Synovial Membranes Line joint cavities and are composed of connective tissue
Meninges Composed of 3 connective tissue membranes found within the dorsal cavity and severe as a protective covering of the brain and spinal cord.
Cutaneous Membrane Forms the outer covering of the body and consists of a thin outer layer of stratified squamous epithelium attached to a thicker underlying layer of connective tissue. The Cutaneous membrane is skin
Stratum Corneum Also called the horny layer; outermost layer
Stratum Lucidun (Palms and soles) Clear Layer
Stratum Granulosum Granular layer of cells. They accumulate two types of granules; keratohyaline granules and lamellated granules
Stratum Spinosum Composed of prickle cells
Stratume Basale (Stratum Germinativum) Deepest of the five layers, made of basal cells
Stratum Papillare Thin superficial layer interlocked with the epidermis
Stratum Reticulare Thick layer of dense, irregular connective tissue
Bones Long, Tubular (referred to as long bones), Short, Seasmoid (shaped like a sesame seed), Cuboidal (Also referred to as short bones), Flat, Irregular
Long Bone Bones longer than they are wide and found in the limbs (eg. femur and humerus). These bones are named for their elongated shape, not their size
Tubular Also referred to as long
Short Roughly cube-shaped bones such as carpals bones of the wrist and tarsal bones of the ankle
Sesamoid (" shaped like a sesame seed") A short bone formed within tendons; cartilaginous in early life and osseous (bony) in the adult. The patella is the largest sesamoid bone in the body
Cuboidal Also referred to as a short bone
Flat Consist of a layer of spongy bone between two thin layers of compact bone; cross - section is flat, not rounded. Flat bones have marrow, but lack a bone marrow cavity. Skull and Ribs are examples.
Irregular Bones in the body not fitting into the above categories mentioned; several are found in the face, such as the zygoma. Vertebrae are also considered irregular bones
Closed Fracture Does not involve a break in the skin
Compound Fracture Projects through the skin with a possibility of infection
Comminuted Fracture More than two separate bone components - segmental fracture, bony fragments
Transverse Fracture Breaks shaft bone across the longitudal axis
Greenstick Fracture Only one side of a shaft is broken, and other is bent; common in children
Spiral Fracture Spread along the length of a bone and produced by twisting stress
Colle's Frature Occurs in the wrist and affects the distal radius bone.
Compression Fracture Vertebrae Collapse due to trama, tumor, or osteoporisis
Epiphyseal Fracture Occurs when matrix is calcifying and chondrocytes are dying; usually seen in children
Skeletal Muscle Also called striated muscle , is attached to the skeleton by tendons; contraction of skeletal muscle is under voluntary control
Cardiac Muscle Also called the heart muscle, contains interlocking involuntary striated muscle as well as smooth muscle, which allow the electrical impulses to pass quickly across the muscle fibers
Smooth Muscle Found in the walls of all the hollow organs of the body (except the heart). Its contraction reduces the sizes of these structures; movement generally is considered involuntary (not under voluntary control).
Adrenal Glands Ductless, pyramid-shaped glands are situated on the top of the superior end of each Kidney. 2 structural parts of the adrenal gland.Inner portion is the medulla. Outer portion is the cortex. Medulla secretes epinephrine. Cortex secretes several steroids.
Carotid Body A structure made of epithelial-like cells located on each side of the body at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery. Not a True endocrine structure
Parathyroid Gland Small round bodies located on the posterior of the thyroid gland. Regulate Calcium and phosphorus metabolism
Pituitary Gland Also called Hypophysis cerebi/ Single gland -2 separate parts - Located brain under hypothalamus.
Thymus Gland Composed of lymphoid tissue and located in the mediastinum of the chest. Largest at birth
Thyroid Gland Regulates metabolism and serum calcium levels through secretion of thyroid hormone.
White Blood Cells Leukocytes or WBCS. Body's primary defense
Red Blood Cells Erythrocytes or RBCS. Disked shaped cells containing hemoglobin enabling cells to pick and deliver oxygen to all the parts of the body. Erythrocyte disorders ex- anemia and polycythemia
Platelets Thrombocytes. Form clusters to plug small holes in blood vessels and assist in clotting.
Created by: BBracha



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