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Chapter 19

AP Euro - 18th Century Economy and Society

The Agricultural Revolution Features: Increased production of food New Methods of Cultivation Selective Breeding of Livestock
Open Field System Common lands were open and strips of land for agriculture were not divided by fences or hedges. 1/3 to 1/2 of lands were allowed to lie fallow on any given year so that the soil could recover
Charles “Turnip” Townsend He pioneered the crop rotation.
Crop Rotation The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
Jethro Tull (1674-1741) He created a seed drill
Seed Drill This allowed for sowing of crops in a straight row rather than scattering it by hand.
Columbian exchange Resulted in a revolution in diet The trading between New World to Europe.
Enclosure movement Began in the 16th century Landowners sought to increase profits from wool production by enclosing fields for raising sheep. Differed from 18th century enclosure
Corn Laws 1815 - Benefited landowners High tariffs placed on foreign grain Hurt the poor because they couldn't afford the price Example of a law that benefited the wealth at the expense of the poor.
Population Explosion The Europe Population increased from 120 million to 190 million. This was due to a number of reasons, but advances in medicine was not one of them.
Proto-Industrialization Another name for the Cottage Industry
Cottage Industry (“putting out” system) Rural industry became a major pillar of Europe's growing economy in the 18th century. Essentially a family enterprise
Flying Shuttle This was invented by John Kay in 1733. This enabled the weaver to throw shuttle back and forth between threads with one hand.
Spinning Jenny This was invented by James Hargreaves in 1764. This mechanized the spinning wheel.
Water Frame This was invented by Richard Arkwright in 1769. This improved thread spinning.
Spinning Mule This was invented by Samuel Crompton in 1779. This combined the best features of the water frame and the spinning mule.
Mercantilism an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
Atlantic Economy English merchants believed in upholding private interests of the people and the central state. Led to Navigation Acts.
Sugar This became the most important commodity produced in the Atlantic Trade.
Bullionism Countries sought to build large reserves of gold and silver and prevent the flow of these precious metals out of their country.
Bank of England 1694, provided important source of capital for economic development.
Act of Union, 1707 This unified England and Scotland; the Scots sought the benefits of trade within the English empire
Navigation Acts This was passed by Parliament to increase military power and private wealth. First act passed in 1651 and sought to reduce Dutch domination of the Atlantic trade.
Triangular Trade This revolved around the West Indies in the Caribbean and included North America and Africa
Dutch Republic Netherlands was the world's dominant maritime power "Golden Age of the Netherlands"-middle class (burghers) dominated politics and the economy
Anglo-Dutch Wars 1652-1674 damaged Dutch shipping and commerce
Slave Trade Dramatic growth in Atlantic trade was due in large part to the use of slave labor About 10 million transported
"Middle Passage" 20% to 1/3 of slaves died en route to New World
War of Spanish Succession The prospect of the Bourbons (Louis XIV and grandson) controlling both France and Spain (and their empires) became a major threat to Britain in North American and the balance of power in Europe
Treaty of Utrecht 1713 - France lost newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and the Hudson Bay territory to Great Britain
Asiento The west African slave trade with the New World
Seven Years' War It was the war between the French and their Indian allies and the English that proved the English to be the more dominant force of what was to be the United States both commercially and in terms of controlled regions.
Treaty of Paris 1763 - Ended the 7 Years' War France is completely removed from North America.
American Revolution In hopes of weakening Britain's world empire, France gave significant financial and military support to the US in its successful war for independence
Creoles Spaniards born in Latin America came to rival the power of Spanish authorities.
Mestizos Children born to Spanish fathers and Indian mothers.
“Spare the rod and spoil the child” Daniel Defoe-children's labor views and parents job to train them and make them obedient
Pietism In Germany, cause its Protestant revival Emotional content of Christian faith was emphasized
John Wesley Influenced pietism in Germany Founded Methodism
Methodism The religious beliefs and practices of Methodists characterized by concern with social welfare and public morals
Rococo Court of Louis XV-lighter elements, more curves and natural patterns, highly decorative, intimate setting, playful scenes of the aristocracy and bourgeoisie
Neoclassicism Sought to return to artistic style of ancient Rome, Greek ideals, and Renaissance-simple, balanced, symmetry, restraint
Jacques-Louis David Death of Socrates, big role in the Neoclassicism movement
Classical Style (Music) Influenced by neoclassicism art
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Master of the new musical style, prolific Austrian composer and child prodigy
Franz Joseph Haydn Master of the new musical style, prolific Austrian composer who influenced the classical form of the symphony (1732-1809)
Ludwig van Beethoven Master of the new musical style, German composer of instrumental music (especially symphonic and chamber music)
Symphony Important genre, developed during this time
Created by: Jrod42