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ACID Substance whose aqueous solutions are characterized by a sour taste, turn blue litmus red and react with bases and certain metals to form salts. pH less than 7 in its standard state.
CAUSTIC Capable of burning, corroding, dissolving, or eating away by chemical action. pH greater than 7 in its standard state (base, alkalide)
AIR REACTIVITY Materials that can react or ignite if they are exposed to air. i.e. phosphorus. (shipped in machine oil or glycerine)
AUTO REFRIGERATION Phenomenon that occurs during the rapid release (boiling) of a liquefied gas that causes it to temporarily remain in a liquid state through rapid cooling.
BIOLOGICAL AGENTS Include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and their associated toxins. Many microbes reproduce rapidly and require minimal resources for survival; therefore, they are a potential danger in a wide variety of occupational settings.
BIOLOGICAL TOXINS Small molecules, peptides, or proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact with or absorption by body tissues. (allergic reactions to death)
BLOOD AGENT Chemical compound, including the cyanide group, which affects bodily functions by preventing the normal utilization of oxygen by body tissues. (does not affect blood in any way)
BOILING POINT Temp at which the transition from a liquid to a gas state occurs. At this temp, the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the surrounding atmospheric pressure so that the liquid rapidly becomes a vapor.
CATALYST A substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected.
CHEMICAL CHANGE Changes that take place on the molecular level. A ______ _______ produces a new substance.
CHEMICAL INTERACTION Caused when 2 or more chemicals, or the chemical and its container are incompatible.
COMPOUND MIXTURE Separate elements that bond together to form ________ ________, they have a tendency to break down into their component parts, sometimes in an explosive manner.
CONCENTRATION When dealing with corrosives, the amount of acid or base is compared to the amount of water present.
CRITICAL TEMPERATURE The minimum temperature at which a gas can be liquefied no matter how much pressure is applied. A gas cannot be liquefied above its ______ _______.
CRITICAL PRESSURE The pressure that must be applied to bring a gas to its liquid state.
DISSOCIATION The separation of a substance into 2 or more simpler substances, or of a molecule into atoms or ions, by the action of heat or a chemical process. Usually reversible.
CORROSIVITY (corrosive, acids, bases, alkalides) a measure of a substance's tendency to deteriorate in the presence of another substance or in a particular environment. (caustics) (Acid 1 - 13 Caustic)
DOSE The concentration or amount of material to which the body is exposed over a specific time period
DOSE RESPONSE Biological reaction caused by the dose in the body. The degree of harm is directly related to the dose (time and amount) and its impend on bodily functions.
EXPANSION RATIO The amount of gas produced by a given volume of liquid at a given temperature.
FLASH POINT The minimum temp at which a material gives off vapor in sufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air and will not continue to burn.
FIRE POINT the temp at which enough vapors are given off to support continuous burning.
FLAMMABLE (EXPLOSIVE) RANGE the difference between the UEL and LEL
LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIIT - LEL minimum concentration of vapor to air below which a flame will not probate in the presence of an ignition source. ("too lean to burn")
UPPER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT - UEL maximum vapor to air concentration above, which a flame will not propagate. ("too rich to burn")
HALF-LIFE Period of time it takes for a substance undergoing decay to decrease by half.
HALOGENATED HYDROCARBONS Subgroup of aromatic hydrocarbons, in which one of the hydrogen molecules is substituted by a halogen group.
INHIBITORS Added to products to control their chemical reaction with other products. If it is not added or escapes during an incident, the material will begin to polymerize, which creates a very dangerous situation. (used w/ class 5.2)
IGNITION TEMPERATURE Temp at which a material will self-ignite and sustain combustion in air without an external spark or flame.
INSTABILITY Materials that decompose spontaneously, polymerize, or otherwise self-react and are generally considered unstable.
IONIC & COVALENT COMPOUNDS Materials made through the sharing or transfer of electrons
IRRITANTS They cause respiratory distress and copious tearing that incapacitate a victim
MAXIMUM SAFE STORAGE TEMPERATURE - MSST Max temp that an organic peroxide may be stored safely (Class 5.2)
MELTING POINT The temp at which a solid become a liquid allowing it to spread more readily
FREEZING POINT the temp at which a liquid converts to a solid
MISCIBILITY Tendency or ability of two or more liquids to form a uniform blend, or to dissolve into each other. Complete solubility, generally seen in liquids. Water and (ethyl) alcohol are miscible, while oil and water are not.
NERVE AGENT Substances that interfere with the central nervous system (CNS)
ORGANIC pertaining to a class of chemical compounds that formerly comprised only those existing in or derived from plants or animals, but that now includes all other compounds of carbon.
INORGANIC composed of matter that is not animal or vegetable; not having the organized structure of living things. Inorganic material lacks carbon chains.
OXIDATION POTENTIAL The combining of anything with oxygen or the propensity to yield oxygen which will present a greater hazard
PERSISTENT Refers to a chemical's ability to remain in the environment. The greater for it to remain harmful over a period of time.
pH - power of Hydrogen The numerical measure of a solution's hydrogen ion concentration as related to acidity or alkalinity
PHYSICAL CHANGE Process when objects undergo a change that does not change their chemical properties (observed without instrumentation)
PHYSICAL STATE The characteristic form of a material at ambient temperature
POLYMERIZATION process in which relatively small molecules, called monomers, combine chemically to produce a very large chainlike or network molecule, called a polymer
RADIOACTIVITY spontaneous emission of ionizing radiation as a consequence of a nuclear reaction, or directly from the breakdown of an unstable nucleus.
ALPHA Positively charged particle emitted by some radioactive materials and is not considered dangerous unless ingested
BETA Small particle ejected forma radioactive atom with more penetrating power than Alpha, can cause same internal damage as Alpha particles. Penetrate only a fraction of an inch of skin tissue and can travel distance of 2.1 meter. (Firefighter PPE)
GAMMA Electromagnetic radiation of high energy. Most penetrating type of radiation. Major external hazard & can penetrate human tissue. Originate from nucleus of an atom, move at speed of light. Time, distance, shielding can protect.
REACTIVITY Substance's propensity to release energy or undergo change, for example; self-reaction, polymerization, or violent reaction.
WATER REACTIVITY Describes sensitivity of a material to water without the addition of heat or confinement
RIOT CONTROL AGENTS "tear gas" Chemical compounds that temporarily make people unable to function by causing irritation to the eyes, mouth, throat, lungs and skin
SATURATED HYDROCARBONS Contain only single bonds. Called alkanes or paraffin hydrocarbons. (methane, butane)
UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS Have at least one multiple bond between two carbon atoms somewhere in the molecule, which causes them to be more hazardous. Those with at least one double bond are called alkenes and those with at least one triple bond are called alkynes.
AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS Materials that contain the benzene "ring", which is formed by six carbon atoms and contains double bonds. Greatest hazard is Toxicity.
SELF ACCELERATED DECOMPOSITION TEMPERATURE Temp at which some portion of the mass of organic peroxide, irreversible decomposition will begin. Violent, usually rupturing the vessel or container dispersing peroxide, liquid, and gaseous decomposition products considerable distances.
SOLUBILITY ability of a substance to form a solution with water.
SOLUTION Mixture in which all of ingredients are completely dissolved
SLURRY Pourable mixture of a solid and a liquid
SPECIFIC GRAVITY weight of a solid or liquid compared to an equal volume of water
STRENGTH concentration of a solution. In corrosives, refers to degree of ionization of an acid or a base in water.
SUBLIMATION ability of a substance to change from the solid to the vapor phase without passing throughout he liquid phase
TEMPERATURE PRODUCT Influences the hazards present and the measures taken to control an incident that involves that product
TOXIC PRODUCTS OF COMBUSTION Byproducts of the combustion process that are harmful to humans.
VAPOR DENSITY Weight of a vapor compared to air. Air = 1; 1.1 falls, .9 rises.
VAPOR PRESSURE pressure exerted on the inside of a closed container by the vapor in the space above the liquid in the container.
VISICANT - blister agent Agents are extremely toxic, with the symptoms of exposure not appearing for minutes, hours or days.
VISCOSITY measure of the thickness of a liquid, determines how easily it flows.
VOLATILITY ease with which a liquid or solid can pass into the vapor state.
COUNTS PER MINUTE measurements of radioactivity. Number of atoms in a given quantity of material that are detected to have decayed in one minute.
IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE & HEALTH - IDLH maximum level of a hazardous material to which a worker can be exposed without suffering irreversible effects of impairment (OSHA & NIOSH)
INCUBATION PERIOD latency between exposure to a pathogen and onset of symptoms
INFECTIOUS DOSE amount of a pathogen necessary to manifest its pathogenicity. (variables are health, gender, predisposition, etc..)
LETHAL CONCENTRATION - LC50 amount of material in the air that is expected to kill 50% of a group of test animals. (inhalation)
LETHAL DOSE - LD50 single dose that causes death in 50% of a group of test animals. (any route other than inhalation)
PARTS PER MILLION - PPM ratio of amount of one substance to the amount of another, expressed as a unit of solute dissolved in one million units of solution.
PARTS PER BILLION - PPB number of units of one substance relative to one billion units of another.
PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LIMIT - PEL term OSHA uses, which is the maximum concentration, o which 95% of healthy adults can be repeatedly exposed for 8 hours per day, 40 hours per week.
RADIATION ABSORBED DOSE - RAD energy absorption of 100 ergs per gram of irradiated material. 1 RAD = 1 Rem = 1 cGy
ROENTGEN EQUIVALENT MAN - REM ______ is the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation that produces same biological effects as one RAD. (bone scan determines radiation exposure)
THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUE CEILING - TLVC maximum concentration to which a health adult can be exposed without risk of injury.
THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUE SHORT TERM EXPOSURE LIMIT - TLVC/STEL maximum average concentration, to which healthy adults can be safely exposed for up to 15 minutes continuously, with 1 hour between exposures, no more that 4 times a day.
THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUE TIME WEIGHED AVERAGE - TLV/TWA maximum concentration, to which all (100%) healthy adult can be repeatedly exposed for 8 hours per day 40 hours per week.
Created by: jerpeters
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