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Biological Immunoassay Indicators (Hand Held Assays) Tests for: Biological Warfare Agents. LIMITATIONS: false negatives/positives and porous surfaces can hinder.
Colorimetric Detector Tubes Detects specific gases and vapors. Tubes filled w/ reagents, bellows or piston draws sample through tube. Not accurate in measuring/quantitative results. Interpreting color change may be difficult. Shelf life. Response times vary.
pH Meters Measures acidity/alkalinity of a corrosive material. More accurate than pH paper/strips. Probes must be thoroughly rinsed w/ distilled water before & after each calibration & use. Close proximity to material. Affected by other materials.
pH Paper/Strips Chemical reaction changes color of paper. False positives, must have accurate color perception. Only use on a liquid sample.
Reagents Substance/solution combined with a material causing a chemical reaction. For specific chemical and biological materials. Used in any substance used in a chemical reaction. Used in devices such as colorimetric tubes.
Test strips Test for chemical agents (G, H, V) or chemical agents in atmosphere or surface liquid. Verify w/ another instrument. Reagent strips produce visible color change, reliable/easy to read, can be worn.
Combustible Gas indicator (CGI) Measure flammability of gases & LEL, concentration of CG or vapor in atmosphere, presence of flammable vapors of hydrocarbon products. Normal atmosphere. Operates via catalytic combustion - wheatstone bridge.
DNA Fluoroscopy DNA sequences enables detection/ID different bio agents. Capability to quantitative monitoring of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) replication in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) apparatus.
Laboratory "gold standard" of identifying pathogens.
Oxygen Meter Measures % of O in the atmosphere. Passive sensor or battery or bulb operated pump which draws air sample. False readings of normal/high (chorine & fluorine) when O deficient. O reacts w/ electrolytes in a cell, generates a current flow in meter.
Electrochemical Cells (Carbon Monoxide Meters) Immediate results. Measures only CO, may not indicate O deficiency or LEL. Warns responders of possible ongoing combustion.
Flame Ionization Detector (FID) Test for organic compounds, hydrocarbons such as butane or hexane. Biochemical compounds i.e. proteins, nucleotides, and pharma. Detects only components which can be burned, destroys material detecting, high voltage, last detector used.
Gas Chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) Molecular & ionic composed compounds. "Gold Standard" in lab environment for forensic substance ID due to specific tests. Uses a library search for false positives. High cost, false positives/negatives, size/power req, analysis time and training.
Infrared Spectroscopy Detects wide variety of materials. Can not definitively ID bio agents, metals and non-metals, and simple ionic salts. Chemicals absorb infrared light, pattern absorption unique to chemical (spectrum), matches spectrum of the sample to library.
Ion Mobility Spectroscopy ID low concentrations of chemicals bases on migration of gas phase ions through a homogeneous electric field. Interferences, drift times, result in false positives. IMS is point detection, uses radioactive or corona discharge to drive sample test. CAM
Gamma Spectrometer (Radiation Isotope Identification Device - RIID) Qualitative and quantitative analysis of gamma radiation capable of ID-ing gamma-emitting isotopes. May have dose rate feature. IDs radioactive nuclides based on measured gamma ray spectra. Affected by temp variations.
Metal Oxide Sensor Translate changes in concentrations of gaseous chemical species into electric signals. Sensitive enough to pinpoint small leaks in pipes. Detect only small number of (specific) chemicals.
Photoionization Detectors (PID) Organic and some inorganic gases and vapors. Total concentration. Can be calibrated for specific chemicals. Measure toxic exposures. Uses ultraviolet light. Calibrated on isobutylene. Does not detect methane. Readings may change with mixed gases.
Radiation Detection and Measurement Instruments Alpha, Beta, neutron particles, and Gamma rays. # if diff porbes. No response does not = clean. False positives. Affected by wind/shielding. Passive dosimeters are product specific and other chemicals may interfere w/ readings.
Raman Spectroscopy (Ahura) Explosives, unknowns, narcotics, TICs. Chemistry. Point and shoot. Do not use laser on flammable, explosive materials or dark surfaces. Analyze through glass or bags. Information rich.
Surface Acoustical Wave (SAW) Process electrical signals. Able to detect blister and nerve agents at same time. Must be touched by finger, gloved hand, or soft-tip stylus. Not 100% sealable. Cost and temp dependent. Sensor applications include all areas of sensing
Wet Chemistry Done in liquid phase. "bench" chemistry. Limited field use. Requires chemist. Provides qualitative chemical analysis, such as changes in color, but often involves more quantitative chemical analysis.
Identifying an unknown atmosphere Radioactivity. Combustibility. Oxygen availability/deficiency. pH, if liquid. Hydrogen sulfide. Carbon Monoxide. Organic Vapors.
Types of monitors for Radioactivity: Geiger Counter, Dosimeter, Thermal Luminescent Dosimeter (TLD).
Types of monitors Flammability: CGI, Multi-Gas Monitor, PID, FID
Types of monitors Oxidation Potential/Deficiency Oxygen meters and Photoionization Detectors
Types of monitors Corrosivity: pH-Litmus Dye, pH Paper, pH meters
Types of monitors Toxicity Photoionization detectors, flame ionization detectors, infrared spectrophotometers and detector tubes.
Types of monitors for Pathogenicity (ideological - biological) Biological Immunoassay Indicators, DNA fluoroscopy, Polymerase chain reaction, and hand held assays.
Created by: jerpeters