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Test 9 notes

Respiratory and Urinary

epiglottis uppermost cartilage of larynx; closes during swallowing to direct foods and liquids into esophagus
pleura serous membrane covering the lungs and thoracic cavity
septum vertical plate of bone and cartilage that separates nasal cavity into 2 halves
asthma when someones exposed to an allergen or other respiratory irritant,bronchioles constrict and spasm
expiration repetitive process of exhaling
inspiration repetitive process of inhaling
pneumothorax if thoracic wall is punctured, air will rush in pleural cavity,causing a space to fill with a result neg. pressure that characterizes pleural cavity is lost & lung coils and collapses.
pneumothorax air can also enter pleural space when weakened or diseased alveoli ruptures , causes disruption in visceral pleura, and air from lung enters pleural cavity
emphysema progressive lung disease in which lung tissue surrounding alveoli is destroyed
heimlich maneuver effective maneuver for dislodging a foreign object in someone who is choking
heimlich maneuver uses residual volume of air already in lungs to expel an object in the trachea
respiratory system divided into 2 tracts upper respiratory and lower respiratory
upper respiratory nasal cavity, nasopharynx, oropharynx,laryngopharynx, larynx,pharynx
what makes up pharynx nasopharynx, oropharynx,laryngopharynx
lower respiratory trachea, left and right, primary bronchi, bronchioles, left lung lower lobe, diaphragm
functionally respiratory system also includes oral cavity, rib cage, respiratory muscles (incl. diaphragm)
what do upper respiratory structures do warm & humidify inspired air. also responsible for sense of taste & smell as well as chewing &swallowing food
what happens in nose and nasal cavities air enters and leaves respiratory system
conchae 3 bones projecting from lateral wall of each cavity
branches of olfactory nerve responsible for sense of smell
what penetrates upper nasal cavity and leads to the brain branches of olfactory nerve
conchae create narrow passages ensuring most air contacts mucous membranes on way through, air picks up moisture and heat from mucosa
conchae at same time dust sticks to mucus which is then swallowed
drains mucus into nasal cavity sphenoid sinus as well as other paranasal sinuses ( frontal, maxillary, ethmoidal sinuses)
pharynx also called throat and is divided into 3 regions
nasopharynx extends from posterior nares to soft palate, contains opening for right and left auditory (eustachian) tubes
oropharynx space between soft palate and base of tongue , contains palatine tonsils as well as lingual tonsils, found at base of tongue
palatine tonsils most commonly removed by tonsillectomy
laryngopharynx passes dorsal to larynx and connects to esophagus
where does only air pass through nasopharynx
where does both food and air pass through oropharynx and laryngopharynx
larynx lies between root of tongue and upper end of trachea (also called voicebox)
what are 3 functions of larynx prevent food & liquid from entering trachea,acts as an air passageway between pharynx & trachea, produces sound
larynx formed by 9 pieces of cartilage that keep it from collapsing
what do group of ligaments do bind pieces of cartilage together and to adjacent structures in the neck
epiglottis closes over top of larynx during swallowing to direct food & liquids into the esophagus
what is the uppermost cartilage epiglottis
what is largest piece of cartilage thyroid cartilage which is also known as adams apple
mucous membrane lines the larynx and forms 2 pairs of folds
vestibular folds---superior pair sometimes false vocal cords, play no role in speech
vestibular folds--inferior pair vocal cords, produce sound when air passes over them
vestibular folds close glottis during swallowing to keep food and liquids out of airway
glottis opening between the cords
lower respiratory tract trachea, bronchi and lungs
distribute air to interior of lungs trachea and bronchi
where does gas exchange occur deep within lungs
c shaped rings of cartilage encircle trachea to reinforce it and keep from collapsing during inhalation
open part of c faces posteriorly giving esophagus room to expand during swallowing
carina cartilaginous ridge where trachea extends from the larynx
trachea branches into 2 primary bronchi at the carina
supported by c shaped rings of cartilage also like trachea primary bronchi
all divisions of bronchial tree consist of elastic connective tissue true
what is most likely location for aspirated(inhaled) food particles and small objects to lodge right bronchus because is slightly wider than left
alveolar sacs clusters of alveoli where alveolar ducts throughout the lungs terminate
primary structures for gas exchange alveolar sacs
alveoli lung passages all exist to serve: wrapped in a fine mesh of capillaries
what allows for efficient gas exchange extremely thin walls of alveoli and closeness of capillaries
where does exchange of air occur through respiratory membrane, which consists of alveolar epithelium,capillary endothelium, and their joined basement membranes
surfactant substance that helps reduce surface tension to keep alveolus from collapsing as air moves in and out during respiration
lungs fill pleural cavity;extend from just above clavicles to diaphragm and lie against anterior and posterior ribs
hilum opening on lungs medial surface where primary bronchi and pulmonary blood vessels enter each lung
shorter, broader and larger lung right lung
top of each lung apex
visceral pleura serous membrane that covers the surface of the lungs , extending into fissures
parietal pleura lines entire thoracic cavity
pleural cavity space between visceral and parietal pleurae
2 functions of fluid in pleural cavity lubricates pleural surfaces,allowing 2 surfaces 2 glide against each other as lungs expand & contract; creates a pressure gradient that assists in lung inflation
pulmonary ventilation simply breathing
main muscle responsible for pulmonary ventilation diaphragm
external intercostals muscles pull ribs upwards and outward, widening the thoracic cavity
internal intercostals help elevate the ribs
diaphragm contracts,flattens and drops, pressing abdominal organs down and enlarging thoracic cavity and then air rushes in to equalize pressure
accessory muscles join in during times of forced or labored breathing to assist with breathing
deep inspiration muscles of neck (sternocleidomastoids and scalenes) and chest (pectoralis minor) contract to help elevate the chest
forced expiration rectus abdominus & external abdominal obliques contract to pull down the ribs &sternum, reducing chest size & expelling air more rapidly
primary respiratory center inspiratory center
atmospheric pressure pressure that drives respiration and is also the weight of the air around us
apneustic center stimulates inspiratory center to increase length and depth of inspiration
pneumotaxic center inhibits both apneustic and inspiratory center; contributes to a normal breathing rhythm and prevents overinflation of the lungs
asthma most common illness in children
changes with aging decreased mobility of chest wall;increased lung rigidity; decreased number and dilation of alveoli; weakened respiratory muscles;reduced volume of respiratory fluids
emphysema progressive lung disease in which lung tissue surrounding alveoli is destroyed
lower respiratory structures located inside of thoracic cavity
upper respiratory structures located outside of thoracic cavity
diuresis increased secretion of urine
diuretics drugs that are administered to increase urine volume
lithotripsy uses ultrasound to disintegrate kidney stone into particles small enough to pass through urinary tract
micturition urination
oliguria urine output of less than 400 ml/day that's insufficient for clearing waste products
urinary system contains kidneys, ureters, urethra and urinary bladder
function of kidneys produces hormones, ph regulation,absorbs mineralsand filters blood ,prod urine, waste excretion, water level balancing, BP regulation, red blood cell reg, acid reg
external appearance of kidney dark red and bean shaped, one side bulges outward and other side is indented
bladders function stores urine until it can be eliminated
passageways for conducting urine away from kidneys and out of body ureters and urethra
ureters slender, muscular tubes that connect renal pelvis of each kidney with bladder
urinary bladder in women resides in front of vagina and uterus in men rests on top of prostate gland
detrusor muscle wall of bladder that consists of 3 layers of smooth muscles
hemodialysis blood pumped from patients radial artery to dialysis machine (artificial kidney).in machine blood flows through semi permeable tubes immersed in dialysis fluid. Waste prod. diffuse out of blood &into dialysis fluid which is then discarded
peritoneal dialysis peritoneum serves as semi permeable membrane, dialysis fluid is intro. into peritoneal cavity through catheter,fluid left in body cavity for a few min-hour,waste prod. diffuses out of blood and into dialysate at end of time fluid is drained and discarded
common cause of kidney damage and kidney failure uncontrolled hypertension
filtration blood pressure forces filtrate out of glomerular capillaries into bowmans capsule, then into proximal tubule;blood cells proteins and other lg solutes cant pass capillary wall into capsule;water, glucose , sodium and urea are forced out
reabsorption takes place in tubular parts of nephron where water &solutes move across tubular wall out of nephron(by diffusion or active transport) & into surrounding capillaries
secretion moves substances from capillaries into nephron walls; capillaries surrounding nephrons secrete excess amounts of hydrogen ions and potassium ions into nephron tubules;also rids body of drugs,uric acid,hemoglobin breakdown products and other wastes
urination reflex response which empties the bladder
internal urethral sphincter (involuntary control) regulates flow from bladder into urethra
external urethral sphincter (voluntary control) opens to void urine from the body
kidney stones deposits of uric acid that collect in the renal pelvis or lodge in ureter; can be removed by surgery or lithotripsy
renal cortex outer region of kidney
renal medulla forms inner region
renal columns extensions from renal cortex that divide interior region into cone shaped sections
renal pyramids cone shaped section that consists of tubules for transporting urine away from cortex, base of each pyramid faces outward toward the cortex
renal papilla point of pyramid that faces the hilum
minor calyx a cup that renal papilla extends into and it collects urine leaving the papilla
major calyx two or three minor calyces joined together
renal pelvis major calyces converge to form, receives urine from major calyces. continues into ureter
ureter tube like structure that channels urine to the urinary bladder
nephrons filtration unit of the kidneys that lie in the kidneys outer region, where they extend between the cortex and medulla, each one is well supplied with blood
Created by: marys210



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