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Theories & think

metacognition knowledge about ones own learning & how to learn student learn diff strategies & best for them being able to predict what is likely, sensible/ what is not metcog strat help students improve learning *self-questioning strat (who,what,where,how?
self-efficacy belief in one's capabilities to organize, execute course of action *Bandura's social cognitive theory determines: feel,think,motive, and behavior
schema theory basically tree graph or map that breaks dwn specific topic into diff subjects-related: outline/diff concepts grp in cat, gain accesss to info held in semantic long-term memory by following paths, info fits existingschema is more easily learned/retained
strong self-efficacy view challenging problems as task to be mastered develop deep interest in activities form strong sense of commitment recover quickly from setbacks
weak self-efficacy avoidchallenging tasks believe diff.task beyond capabilities focus on personal failing and neg outcomes quickly lose confidence in personal abilities
belief in self- efficacy affects life choices, level of motiv, quality function, resilience of adversity, vulnerability to stress & depression
applied behavior analysis definition application of behavioral learning principles to understandingand changing behavior.
ABA principles ID behavior and reinforcers, set baseline for behavior wanted, pick reinforcer, choose punisher, observe behavior during program, reduce reinforcer if behavior is working
ABA programs home-based reinforcerment daily report cards group contingency programs
Constructivist/ learners building their own understanding of reality actively construct knowledge by cont. assimilating and accommodating new info
Theories of learning state learners must individual discover and transform complex info, check new info, against old rules and revising when no longer work
teachers role in theories of learning becomes "guide on the side" instead of "stage on the stage" by helping students discover their own meaning instead of lecturing and controlling all class activities
Piaget & Vygotsky suggestion of constructivism social nature of learning, & both suggest using mixed-ability learning grps to promote conceptual change
Bandura social learning theory people learn from each other via observation, imitation and modeling-bridge betwn behaviorist and cognitive learning theories/encompasses attn, memory, motivation
Bandura social learning theory explains human behaviors continuous reciprocal interaction btwn cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences
Bandura social learning theory learning modes observation: by viewing others behavior, attitudes, and outcomes imitation: world/person's behavior cause each other modeling:one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed
Bloom's Taxonomy Cognitive, affective, psychomotor:,create: evaluate, analyze, apply, undrstnd, remember
cognitive Cognitive: mental skills
affective affective: growth in feeling & emotion
paychomotor psychomotor: manual or physical skills
create create: hypothesize, plan, produce
evaluate evaluate: check, critique, monitor, test
analyze analyze: differentiate, organize, deconstruct
apply apply: execute, implement
understand understand: interpret, illustrate, classify, summarize, compare, explain
remember recognize, recall
zone of proximal development Vygotsky/Social Cognitive Theorist and psychologist
definition of zone of proximal development structuring interactions and devekoping instruction in small steps based on tasks the learner is already capable of performing independently (scaffolding)
Short term memory/working memory hold info for few seconds, 5-9 things at one time, and rehearsal
Scaffolding Vygotsky: assistance provided by more competent peers and adults
Scaffolding definition implies providing a child with great deal of suppolrt during early stages of learning and then diminish the support by having the child take on increased responsibility.
scaffolding concept related to cognitive aprenticeship: includes clues, reminders, encouragement, breaking the prob into steps, provide ex or anything else that allows student to grow independently
cognitive apprenticeship describes entire process of modeling, coaching, scaffolding and evaluation typically seen whenever one-on-one instruction takes place
rehearsal (short-term memory) use of repetion to maintain working memory
long-term memory keeps info for long periods of time, episodic memory, semantic, procedural, dual code theory
episodic memory personal experiences
semantic memory facts and general info
procedural memory "knowing how" ex. riding a bike
dual code theory of memory info is retained in visual and verbal
Kohlberg's Moral development theory preconventional morality(own interests) conventional morality(consider others) postconventional morality(abstract principles) two stages each level, most to conventional by age 9, not all adults reach final stage
preconventional morality (own interests) avoid punishment: physical consequences determine good /bad look out for yourself but factor in other's needs (rules are set down by others)
conventional morality (consider others) do unto others as you would have them do to you/ can understand other's feelings (adopt rules and often place group needs first, expectations of family and nation valued)
postconventional (abstract principles) justice, equality, human rights more important than society's laws ( people define own values)
Vygotsky: Cognitive development 2 key idea: intellectual dev can only be understood in terms of historical/cultural context children experience. Depends on symbols of cultures created
Terms of Cognitive development Private speech (self talk), zone of prox, (level of dev immed above present level), scaffolding, cooperative learning (work together to help one another learn)
Vygotsky: Social development theory terms social interaction procedes development, more knowledgeable other, zone of prx, scaffolding, child construct knowledge, development cannot be seperated from social context, language (central role in mental deve)
Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial dev 8 stages- 3 during school age, set of principles that relates social environment to psycological dev initiative vs guilt (3-6) industry vs inferiority (6-11) identify vs role confusion (12-18)
initiative vs guilt (3-6) begin asserting control over power over environment- succes leads to sense of purpose. Too much power experience disapproval, resulting in guilt
industry vs inferiority (6-11) need to cope with new social & academic demands-success leads to sence of competence, failure results in feelings of inferiority
indentify vs role confusion (12-18) teens need to dev personal identity- success leads to ability to stay true to self, failure leads to role confusion & weak sense of self
Expectancy Theory equation effort to achieve depend on expectation of reward. Motivation (M) =(Ps) Perceived probability of success X (Is) Incentive value of success
Expectancy theory definition People must believe they have chance to succeed easy success not valued same as difficult task\ moderate to difficult (not impossible) are better than easy tasks for learning motivation
Premack Principle Enjoyable activities can be used to reinforce less enjoyable activities
Created by: nleavers
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