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US Government Honors

SAHS Government Final Exam

TermDefinition
Magna Carta first legislation to limit the power of the king in England
The Stamp Act the first direct tax on the colonies
First Continental Congress it was here that the colonists decided to place an embargo on British goods
Virginia House of Burgess the first legislature in the english colonies
Intolerable Act the english response to the Boston Tea Party
Petition of Rights this legislation forced the king of England to have parliament's consent on taxes
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut the first written constitution in the Americas
Thomas Paine writer of "Common Sense"
Thomas Jefferson writer of the Declaration of Independence
Proprietary colony this is the type of colony which is owned by a person
Lexington and Concord the first shots of the American Revolution were fired here
Reserved Powers Government powers of the states
Expressed Powers Government powers of the federal government
Dual Federalism the theory of federalism where the national government and state governments have distinct powers
Mandate a federal order for a state to provide a service
Block Grant monies provided by the federal government to the states for broad purposes
Concurrent Powers both the State and the Federal government may exercise these
Categorical Grant both the State and the Federal government may exercise these monies given to the states for specific projects with "strings attached"
McCoulloug v Maryland (1819) reinforced the supremacy and increased its strength
Gibbons v Ogden (1824) strengthen the Federal government and provided all trade is regulated by the federal government
Devolution the current trend in federalism where the Federal government makes policy and the States administer the policy
Due Process government is denied taking away a person's life, liberty, or property without following all of the rules and regulations in place for litigation
Selective Incorporation the courts application of the Bill of Rights into state laws on a case by case basis
Search Warrant a court order allowing the government to look for specific evidence in specific places
Probable Cause reasonable suspicion
Tinker v DesMoine established that symbolic speech is also protected under the 1st Amendment
Engle v Vital established it is unconstitutional for public schools to mandate prayers
Seditious Speech not protected under the 1st Amendment per Schneck v NY
Burning of the US flag Texas v Johnson states this is a protected under the 1st Amendment
Cruel and Unusual Punishment prohibited by the 8th Amendment
Civil Disobedience refusal to obey a law, usually when it is found to be morally unjust
Gideon v Wainwright incorporates the 6th Amendment right to counsel for State crimes
Libel written defamatory speech not protected under the 1st Amendment
Slander spoken defamatory speech not protected under the 1st Amendment
Free Exercise Clause guarantee that citizens can practice their religion without interference from the government, as long as they do not violate laws
14th Amendment justifies the practice of incorporation of the Bill of Rights to State laws
Reno v American Civil Liberties Union established the FCC should not regulate the internet
Right to Privacy a right interpreted in the 9th Amendment
Self-Incrimination prohibited by the 9th Amendment
Prior Restraint prohibited by the government in NYT v United States Government (1971)
FCC government organization which regulates the media
Brown v Board of Education segregation was a violation of the Equal Protection clause; reversed Plessy v Ferguson "Separate but Equal"
Filibuster various tactics (usually long speeches) aimed at defeating a bill in a legislative body by preventing a final vote; associated with the US Senate
Miranda v Arizona criminal suspects must be informed of their right to consult with an attorney and their right against self-incrimination prior to questioning by police
Unicameral a legislative body with one chapter
Natural Rights life. liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
Impeachment formal charges against a public official
1st Amendment freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and to petition the government
4th Amendment protection from unreasonable searches and seizures
5th Amendment right to fair trial, can't be tried twice for the same crime,
6th Amendment Right to a speedy trial, an impartial jury, to confront witnesses and to have a lawyer
27th Amendment prohibits any law that increases or decreases the salary of members of Congress from taking effect until the start of the next set of terms of office for Representatives.
Bicameral a legislative body composed of two chambers
John Locke english philosopher who is associated with "Natural Rights" Life, Liberty, and Property
Separation of Powers the legislative, executive, and judicial powers of government are in separate bodies.
Consensus general agreement
Preamble the introduction to the constitution
State a governed entity
Nation a large body of people who seek or possess a government
Nation-state a sovereign state inhabited by a relatively homogeneous group of people who share a feeling of common nationality.
Sovereignty having supreme power or authority
Social contract the voluntary agreement among individuals by which, according to any of various theories, as of Hobbes, Locke, or Rousseau, the right to secure mutual protection and welfare or to regulate the relations among its members.
Constitution the system of fundamental principles according to which a nation, state, corporation, or the like, is governed.
Constitutional law the body of rules, doctrines, and practices that govern the operation of political communities.
Politics the science or art of political government
Political party Republican and Democratic are examples
Economics the science that deals with the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, or the material welfare of humankind.
Limited Government restricted with reference to governing powers by limitations prescribed in laws and in a constitution
Representative Government relating to a system of governance by chosen representatives, usually elected from among a large group
Embargo an order of a government prohibiting the movement of merchant ships into or out of its ports
Ratify to confirm by expressing consent, approval, or formal sanction
Ceded formally surrender to another
Ordinance an authoritative rule or law; a decree or command
Interstate Commerce commercial trade, business, movement of goods or money, or transportation from one state to another, regulated by the federal government
Extralegal being beyond the province or authority of law
Anarchy a state of society without government or law
Three-Fifth Compromise provide that only three-fifths of a state's slaves would be included in population counts for the purpose of direct taxes, political representation in Congress and presidential electoral votes.
Federalist a member or supporter of the Federalist party
Anti-Federalist an opponent of federalism
Elastic clause a statement in the U.S. Constitution (Article I, Section 8) granting Congress the power to pass all laws necessary and proper for carrying out the enumerated list of powers
Petition a formally drawn request, often bearing the names of a number of those making the request, that is addressed to a person or group of persons in authority or power, soliciting some favor, right, mercy, or other benefit:
Divine Right the right to rule comes directly from god
Judicial Review he power of a court to argue the constitutionality of the laws of a government or the acts of a government official
Albany Plan of Union a meeting of delegates from seven American colonies, held in 1754 at Albany, New York, at which Benjamin Franklin proposed a plan for unifying the colonies
Committees of Correspondence shadow governments organized by the Patriot leaders of the Thirteen Colonies on the eve of American Revolution
Second Continental Congress a convention of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that started meeting in the summer of 1775
Shay's Rebelion a political protest in 1787. Daniel Shays, a decorated captain in the Continental Army, led 1500 armed men in an attempt to commandeer weapons from the Federal Arsenal in Springfield, Massachusetts
Constitutional Convention the convention in Philadelphia (1787) of representatives from each of the former Colonies, except Rhode Island, at which the Constitution of the United States was framed
English Bill of Rights it was the english precursor to a constitution
Mayflower Compact an agreement to establish a government, entered into by the Pilgrims in the cabin of the Mayflower
Declaration of Independence public act by which the Second Continental Congress, on July 4, 1776, declared the Colonies to be free and independent of England
Articles of Confederation he first constitution of the 13 American states, adopted in 1781 and replaced in 1789 by the Constitution of the United States
Virginia Plan a plan, unsuccessfully proposed at the Constitutional Convention, providing for a legislature of two houses with proportional representation in each house and executive and judicial branches to be chosen by the legislature
New Jersey Plan a plan, unsuccessfully proposed at the Constitutional Convention, providing for a single legislative house with equal representation for each state.
Connecticut Compromise a compromise adopted at the Constitutional Convention, providing the states with equal representation in the Senate and proportional representation in the House of Representatives
Federalist Papers is a collection of 85 articles and essays written to try an influence the passing of the constitution
Constituent a person who authorizes another to act in his or her behalf, as a voter in a district represented by an elected official
Redistrict to divide anew into districts, as for administrative or electoral purposes
Gerrymander dividing of a state, county, etc., into election districts so as to give one political party a majority in many districts while concentrating the voting strength of the other party into as few districts as possible.
At-Large representing the whole of a state, district, or body rather than one division or part of it
Censure an official reprimand, as by a legislative body of one of its members
Incumbent the holder of an office
Bill calendar a calendar that identifies bills and resolutions
Quorum the number of members of a group or organization required to be present to transact business legally, usually a majority
Seniority System the practice of granting privileges to members of Congress (Senators and Representatives) who have served longest
Subpoena the usual writ for the summoning of witnesses or the submission of evidence, as records or documents, before a court
Perjury he willful giving of false testimony under oath
Contempt willful disobedience to or open disrespect for the rules or orders of a court
Immnuity exemption from criminal prosecution or legal liability or punishment on certain conditions
Plessy v Ferguson landmark United States Supreme Court decision upholding the constitutionality of state laws requiring racial segregation in public facilities under the doctrine of "separate but equal
Appropriations Bill a legislative motion (bill) that authorizes the government to spend money
Powers of Congress on issues of money lay and collect taxes, borrow, establish bankruptcy laws, punish counterfeiters
Powers of Congress on issues of Commerce Powers regulate foreign and interstate trade
Powers of Congress on issues of Military and Foreign Policy declare war, raise and support army, provide, regulate and call into service militia, punish acts committed on international waters
Powers of Congress on issues of Legislative Powers establish naturalization laws, establish post offices & post roads, grant copyrights and patents, create lower courts, govern Washington DC, provide laws necessary and proper
Powers denied Congress writ of habeas corpus, bills of attainder
eligibility to be a member of the House of Representatives 25 years old, live in district they represent, live in state for 7 years
how many members of the house of Representatives are there? there are 435 members
how many members of the Senate are there? there are 100 members
Congressional Committees Standing, Sub, select, Joint, and Conference
Support Agencies Libraries of Congress, Congressional Budget Office
Impoundment seizing property
Tax a sum of money demanded by a government for its support or for specific facilities or services, levied upon incomes, property, sales, etc.
Veto the power or right vested in one branch of a government to cancel or postpone the decisions, enactments, etc., of another branch, especially the right of a president, governor, or other chief executive to reject bills passed by the legislature
Pocket Veto a veto of a bill brought about by the president's failure to sign it within ten days of the adjournment of Congress
appropriations an act of a legislature authorizing money to be paid from the treasury for a specified use
Lobbyist a person who tries to influence legislation on behalf of a special interest
Lobbying to try to influence the actions of (public officials, especially legislators)
Pork-Barrel a government appropriation, bill, or policy that supplies funds for local improvements designed to ingratiate legislators with their constituents
Electoral College a body of electors chosen by the voters in each state to elect the president and vice president of the U.S.
Executive Agreement an agreement, usually pertaining to administrative matters and less formal than an international treaty, made between chiefs of state without senatorial approval
Patronage the distribution of jobs and favors on a political basis, as to those who have supported one's party or political campaign.
Pardon a release from the penalty of an offense; a remission of penalty, as by a governor
Amnesty a general pardon for offenses, especially political offenses, against a government, often granted before any trial or conviction
Bureaucrats an official of a bureaucracy
Embassy A building containing the offices of an ambassador and staff.
Government Corporations state-owned company
Regulatory Commissions a government entity to oversee and regulate
Deregulate reducing state regulations
Procurement the acquisition of goods and services
Spoils System practice where a political party, after winning an election, gives government jobs to its supporters, friends and relatives as a reward for working toward victory, and as an incentive to keep working for the party
Civil Service System allows for a merit based appointment to positions in government
Special Interest Groups groups that come together for the purpose of advocating a cause
Jurisdiction the official power to make legal decisions and judgments
Concurrent Jurisdiction exists where two or more courts from different systems simultaneously have jurisdiction over a specific case
Original Jurisdiction a court is the power to hear a case for the first time
Appellate Jurisdiction when a court has the power to review a lower court's decision.
Litigants a person involved in a lawsuit
Grand Jury a legal body that is empowered to conduct official proceedings to investigate potential criminal conduct and to determine whether criminal charges should be brought
Petit Jury a group chosen from the citizens of a district to try a question of fact
Indictment a formal written accusation of crime affirmed by a grand jury
Senatorial Courtesy an unwritten political custom (or constitutional convention) in the United States whereby the president consults the senior U.S. Senator of his political party of a given state before nominating any person to a federal vacancy within that Senator's state
Opinion opinion of a supreme court judge
Brief a number of formal documents
Writ of Certiorari orders a lower court to deliver its record in a case so that the higher court may review it
Precedent an earlier event or action that is regarded as an example or guide to be considered in subsequent similar circumstances
PAC political action committee a type of organization that pools campaign contributions from members and donates those funds to campaign for or against candidates
Patronage the power to control appointments to office or the right to privileges
Closed Primaries s a type of primary election used to chose candidates who will run in the general election
Open Primaries a primary election that does not require voters to be affiliated with a political party in order to vote for partisan candidates.
Third Parties The term third party is used in the United States for any and all political parties in the United States other than one of the two major parties
Ideology a system of ideas and ideals, especially one that forms the basis of economic or political theory and policy
Ticket Splitting refers to an election in which the voter has chosen candidates from different political parties when multiple offices are being decided by a single election
Winner-take-all system elect the candidates who receive the most votes
Proportional Representation an electoral system in which parties gain seats in proportion to the number of votes cast for them
Engle v Vital ruled it is unconstitutional for state officials to compose an official school prayer and encourage its recitation in public schools
14th Amendment granted citizenship to “all persons born or naturalized in the United States,” which included former slaves recently freed
Created by: tbostwick