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Chap. 15 & 16

Arteries Carry blood away from the heart.
Veins Carry blood to the heart.
Capillaries Connect the smallest arteries to the smallest veins.
Tunica Intima The innermost layer of a vessel that is exposed to the blood.
Tunica Intima Has a smooth surface that keeps blood flowing freely, without sticking to the vessel wall.
Tunica Intima Produces chemicals that cause blood vessels to dilate or constrict.
Tunica Media The middle layer of the vessel that is also the thickest layer.
Tunica Media Composed of smooth muscle and elastic tissue, it allows the blood vessel to change diameter.
Tunica Media The smooth muscle in this layer is innervated by the autonomic nervous system.
Tunica Externa The outer layer of a vessel that is made of strong, flexible, fibrous connective tissue.
Tunica Externa Supports and protects the blood vessel.
Tunica Externa In veins, this is the thickest of the three layers.
Tunica Externa In arteries, it's usually a little thinner than the middle layer.
Conducting Arteries The body's largest arteries, these arteries expand as blood surges into them and recoil when the ventricles relax.
Conducting Arteries Also called elastic arteries because of the large number of elastic fibers embedded in the tunica media.
Conducting Arteries EX: Aorta, common carotid artery, and the subclavian artery.
Distributing Arteries These arteries carry blood further away from the heart to specific organ and areas of the body.
Distributing Arteries Also called muscular arteries, these arteries are smaller in diameter than elastic arteries
Distributing Arteries EX: Brachial, femoral, and renal arteries.
Arterioles Smallest arteries.
Arterioles Also called resistance vessels because, through the contraction of smooth muscle in their walls, the can resist the flow of blood, thus helping regulate BP as well as control how much bloo enters an organ.
Arterioles They're too numerous to name.
Aneurysm If a portion of the arterial wall weakens, the blood inside the artery will push against a weakened area, causing it to bulge.
Venules These are the smallest veins and collect blood from capillaries.
Venules Have very thin walls, consisting of little more than a few endothelial cells.
Venules They are porous and can exchange fluid with surrounding tissue.
Medium-Sized Veins Formed by the convergence of venules on their route toward the heart. They have thicker, more elastic walls.
Medium-Sized Veins These veins contain one-way valves. Formed from the thin endothelium lining, valves keep blood moving toward the heart and prevent backflow.
Medium-Sized Veins EX: Radial and ulnar veins of the forearm, and saphenous veins in the legs.
Large Veins Formed as medium-sizedveins coverage, these veins have a think tunica externa.
Large Veins EX: Venae cava, pulmonary veins, and the internal jugular veins.
Edema When fluid filters out of the capillaries faster than it's reabsorbed, it accumulates in the tisues causing swelling in the ankles, fingers, abdomen, or face.
Causes of Edema Increased capillary filtration, reduced capillary reabsorption, and obstructed lymphatic drainage.
First Step of Pulmonary Circulation Blood leaves the right ventricle through the pulmonary truck, which branches into the right and left pulmonary arteries.
Second Step of Pulmonary Circulation The pulmonary arteries enter the lungs.
Third Step of Pulmonary Circulation The pulmonary arteries branch into lobar arteries (one for each lobe of the lung). These arteries branch into smaller and smaller arteries until ending at the capillary beds.
Fourth Step of Pulmonary Circulation The capillaries surround alveoli, where the exchange of oxygen for carbon dioxide occurs.
Fifth Step of Pulmonary Circulation The capillaries form venules, which merge to form veins. The veins merge until forming the pulmonary vein, which returns oxygenatedblood to the left atrium.
First Step of Syestemic Circulation Ascending aorta
Second Step of Systemic Circulation Aortic arch
Third Step of Systemic Circulation Descending aorta
Where a Pulse Can Be Felt Carotid artery, brachial artery, radial artery, femoral artery, popliteal artery, posterior tibial artery, and the dorsalis pedis artery.
Thoracic Aorta & Its Branches Supply the chest wall and the organs within the thoracic cavity.
Celiac Trunk Divides into the gastric artery, the splenic artery, and the hepatic artery.
Gastric Artery Supplies the stomach
Splenic Artery Supplies the spleen.
Hepatic Artery Supplies the liver
Renal Arteries Supply the kidney.
Superior Mescenteric Artery Supplies most of the small intestine and part of the large intestine.
Inferior Mescenteric Artery Supplies the other part of the large intestine.
Common Iliac Arteries Supply the pelvic organs, thigh, and lower extremities.
External Carotid Artery Supplies most of the external head structures.
Internal Carotid Artery Enters the cranial cavity and supplies the orbits and 80% of the cerebrum.
Righ Common Carotid Artery Arises from the the brachiocephalic artery.
Left Common Carotid Artery Arises from the aortic arch.
Vertebral Arteries Arise from the right and left subclavian arteries. Each extends up the neck, through the cervical vertebrae, and enters the cranium.
Superior Vena Cava Receives blood from the head, shoulders, and arms.
Inferior Vena Cava Receives blood from the lower part of the body.
Hepatic Veins Drains the liver. Because of its proximity to the heart, right-sided heart failure can cause congestion in the liver.
Great Saphenous Vein The longest vein in the body; it's frequently harvested for use as grafts in coronary artery bypass surgery.
Internal Jugular Vein Drains most of the blood from the brain. IN right-sided heart failure, blood backs up from the heart and causes jugular vein distension.
Cephalic Vein At its distal end, is a frequent site for the administration of intravenous fluids.
Median Cubital Vein Most common site for drawing blood.
Popliteal Vein Runs behind the knee.
Internal Jugular Vein Receives most of the blood from the brain as well as from the face. It merges into the subclavian vein, which in turn becomes the brachiocephalic vein.
Brachiocephalic Vein Drains into the superior vena cava.
External Jugular Vein The more superficial of the jugular veins-drains blood from the scalp, facial muscles, and other superficial structures. It too drains into the subclavian vein.
Vertebral Vein Drains the cervical vertebrae, spinal cord, and some of the muscles of the neck.
Normal BP Range Less than 120/80 mm Hg
Prehypertension BP Range 120-139/80-89 mm Hg
Stand 1 Hypertension BP Range 140-159/90-99 mm Hg
Stage 2 Hypertension BP Range 160/100 mm or Hg or greater
Anastomosis A natural connection between two vessels.
Baroreceptors Sensory nerve endings in the aoric arch and carotid arteries that sense changes in pressure.
Circle of Willis Circle of arteries at the base of the brain.
Colloid Osmotic Pressure Process whereby albumin in the blood pulls tissue fluid into capillaries.
Diastolic Pressure Pressure within arteries when the ventricle relaxes.
Diffusion Process by which molecules of a substance move from and area of higher to lower concentration.
Filtration Process of removing particles from a solution by allowing the liquid portion to pass through a membrane.
Peripheral Resistance Resistance to blood flow resulting from the friction of the blod against the walls of the vessels.
Portal System System of vessels in which blood passes through a capillary network, a large vessel, and then another capillary network before returning to the systematic circulation.
Pressure Gradient Difference in pressure between two structures
Sinusoid Large, permeable capillary found in organs such as the liver, spleen, and bone marrow that allows for the passage of large cells and proteins.
Systolic Pressure Pressure in arteries when the vetricle ejects blood.
Vasoconstriction Reduction in the diameter of a vessel.
Vasodilation Increase in the diameterof a vessel.
Vasomotor Center Area in the medulla oblongata of the brain that sends impulses to alter blood vessel diameter and therefore blood pressure.
Lymph A clear, colorless fluid similar to plasma but with a lower protein content.
Lymph Originates in the tissues as the fluid left behind folloeing capillary exchange.
Lymph May contain lipids, lymphocytes, hormones, bateria, viruses, and cellular debis.
Lymphatic Vessels Have thin walls to help prevent backflow.
Lymphatic Vessels The cells forming these walls overlap loosely, allowing gaps to exist between the cells.
Lymphatic Nodules Lymphatic tissue that exists in masses.
Lymphatic Organs Well defined organs that include red bone marrow, the thymus, lymph nodes, the tonsils, and the spleen.
Primary Lymphatic Organs Include red bone marrow and the thymus, provide a location for B and T lymphocytes to mature.
Secondary Lymphatic Organs Include the lymph nodes, tonsils, and the spleen. It contains Lymphocytes that have matured in either the red bone marrow or the thymus.
Trabeculae Connective tissue that extends into the lymph node, dividing it into compartments.
Cortical Nodules Compartments that are filled with lymphocytes.
Germinal Centers A less dense area at the center of the compartments that form and release lymphocytes when an infection is present.
Sinuses Are lined with macrophages capable of phagocytosis seperate that compartments. Lymph slowly flows through these in the process of being filtered.
Afferent Lymphatic Vessels Channel fluid into a lymph node.
Efferent Lymphatic Vessel How lymph leaves Cervical Lymph Nodes after slowly filtering through the lymph node.
Cervical Lymph Nodes Found in the neck, monitor lymph coming from the head and neck.
Axillary Lymph Nodes Clustered in the armpit, receive lymph from the arm and breast.
Inguinal Lymph Nodes Occur in the groin; they receive lymph from the legs.
Pharyngeal Tonsil Adenoids
Pharyngeal Tonsil Sits on the wall of the pharynx, just behind the nasal cavity.
Palatine Tonsils Lies in the posterior of the oral cavity.
Lingual Tonsils Concentrated in patches on each side of the base of the tongue.
Spleen Largest lymphatic organ.
Natural Killer Cells Recognize and destroy any foreign cells, including cancer cells, virus-infected cells, and bacteria-as well as the cells of transplanted organs and tissues.
Swelling Compresses Veins-reducing venous drainage-while forcing the capillary valves open to promote capillary drainage. This helps healing because lymphatic capillaries are more adept at removing bacteria, dead cells, and tissue debris than are blood capillaries
Hyperemia Brings materials necessary for healing, including oxygen and amino acids.
Heat Increases the metabolic rate, and thus, the rate of tissue repair.
Pain Signals that an injury has occured and serves as a reminder to rest the area to allow healing.
Abcess When pus accululates in a tisue cavity.
Pus Dead cells that pile up, along with tissue debris and fluid, to create a thick yellowish fluid.
Natural Active Immunity This type of immunity occurs when the body produces antibodies or T cells after being exposed to a particular antigen.
Artificial Active Immunity This results when the body makes T cells and antibodies against a diseaseas a result of a vaccination. By injecting a vaccine containing dead or weakened pathogens, the recipient's body producees an immune response without actually developing the illness
Natural Passive Immunity This form of immunity results when a fetus acquires antibodies from the mother through the placenta, or when a baby acquires them through breastfeeding.
Artificial Passive Immunity This form of immunity involves obtaining serum from a person or animal that has producedantibodies against a certain pathogen and then injecting it into someone else. This is typically used in emergencies for treatment for rabies and botulism.
T Cells Develop from stem cells in red bone marow
B Lymphocytes Remain in bone marrow until they are fully mature.
Allergy A condition in which the immune system reacts to environmental substances that most people can tolerate.
Immediate Allergic Reaction EX: Pollen or bee stings.
Delayed Allergic Reaction Involve cell-mediated immunity.
Allergen Environmental substance that triggers an allergic response.
Anaphylaxis Severe, immediate hypersensitivity reaction affecting the entire body.
Antibody Substance produced by B lymphocytesin response to a specific antigen.
Cellular Immunity Immune response that targets foreign cells or host cells that have become infected with a pathogen.
Chemotaxis The movement of white blood cells to an area of inflammation in response to the release of chemicals from the injured cells
Complement A group of proteins in the blood that, through a cascade of chemical reactions, participate in nonspecific immunity.
Diapedesis Process in which neutrophils enzymatically digest a portion of the capillary basement membrane, allowing them to leave the vessel and enter inflamed tissue.
Histamine Substance secreted by injured or irritated cells that produces local vasodilation, among other effects.
Humoral Immunity Immune response that uses antibodies to target pathogens outside the host cells.
Hyperemia Increased blood flow to an area.
Interferon Protein released from virus-infected cells that helps protect nearby cells from invasion.
Macrophage Important phagocyte that remains fixed in strategic areas.
Neutrphils Phagocytes that accumulate rapidly at sites of acute injury.
Phagocytosis Process by which phagocytes engulf and destroy microorganisms.
Pyrexia Fever.
Created by: lorenlassley



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