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intro/anatomical terms/directional terms/ joints/ axial & appendicular skeleton

dance an expressive art form that relies totally on human movement for communication
kinesiology the science of the human motion/movement. the study of muscles and bones and how they work
anatomical position standing straight up with feet and palms facing front
supine lying on the back
prone lying facedown
anterior front side or in front of
posterior back side or in back of
lateral father from the medial plane or toward side
medial closer to the median plane or toward the midline
superior above/ toward the head
inferior below/ toward the feet
proximal closer to the root of the limb, trunk, or center of the body
distal father from the root of the limb, trunk or center of the body
superficial closer to or on the surface of the body
deep father from the surface
flexion decreasing of the angle between two levers (bending)
extension increasing of the angle between two levers (straightening)
hyperextension increasing the angle between two levers beyond 180 degrees
abduction movement away from the midline of the body
adduction movement toward the midline of the body
rotation movement around the central axis of a lever
internal rotation rotation of the limbs toward the front of the body
external rotation rotation of the limbs outward from the front of the body
plantar flexion bringing the toes and bottom of foot downward
dorsiflexion bringing the toes and bottom of foot upward
right lateral flexion (spine) side bending of the trunk to the right or moving from a position of left lateral flexion toward anatomical position
left lateral flexion (spine) side bending of the trunk to the left or moving from right lateral flexion toward anatomical position
right rotation (spine) turning the anterior surface of the head or trunk to the right
left rotation (spine) turning the anterior surface of the head or trunk to the left
pronation (forearm) turning the palm backward
supination (forearm) turning the palm forward
inversion (foot) lifting the medial portion of the foot upward
eversion (foot) lifting lateral portion of the foot upward
sagittal plane any plane parallel to the median plane
frontal plane any vertical plane perpendicular to the median plane
transverse plane divides the boy into superior and inferior parts
act of flexion is consideredany movement toward flexion, even if its from hyperextension to extention
axial skeleton the skull, vertebral column, sternum, and ribs
appendicular skeleton composed of the limbs (appendages); upper and lower extremities
upper extremity shoulder girdle and arm/hand
lower extremity pelvic girdle an leg/foot
shoulder girdle clavicle and scapula
arm/hand humerus, raidus, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges
pelvic girle os coxae
leg/foot femur, tibia, tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges
bones 206 in body, serve lever for action of muscles, 3 basic shapes (long, short, and flat)
long bones radius and ulna
short bones talus/ankle
flat bones scapula
joints where bones are linked together
synovial joints freely moving joints
ball-and-socket joint movement in all directions
gliding joint movement is limited
ellipsoid joint movement in 2 planes: flexion/extension an adduction/abduction
hinge joint movement mainly in flexion/extension
saddle joint movement in 2 planes: flexion/extension and adduction/abduction
pivot joint rotation, circular Range of Motion
ossification hardening of bone
epiphysial line region of the long bones of the body where growth occurs
articulation point(s) at which two or more bones meet to form a joint
articulation surfaces surface of a bone that contacts another bone
hyaline cartilage dense cushioning material foun on the articulating surface
synovial membrane connective tissue encasement around a joint (joint capsule)
synovial fluid lubricating fluid secreted by the synovial membrane into the joint capsule
ligaments non-elastic tissue that connects bone to bone
tendons elastic tissue that connects muscle to bone
bursa tiny fluid filled sacks that serve as "ball bearings" at the body's high friction points
ball-and-socket joint examples shoulder, hip
gliding joint examples ribs, sacrum, finger joints
hinge joint examples elbow, knee, ankle
ellipsoid joint example top base of skull and top of cervical vertibrae
saddle joint example thumb
pivot joint example atlas- axis
cartilage shiny, whitish connective tissue that covers the articulating surfaces of the bones
2 types of cartilage stress gravitational pressure and friction from movement itself
excess cartilage stress can cause rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis
joint capsule encloses the joint, prevents loss of fluid, and bins together the ens of the articulating bones
Created by: dancerbooty33



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