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Chapter 3 Cells

Cell Parts/ Mitosis

Cell smallest structures to carry life
Cytoplasm semi-fluid in cells that holds the organelles
Cytoplasmic Membrane outline membrane of the cell (selectively permeable)
Selectively Permeable allows import/export of ONLY certain materials
Neurotransmitters stick to the surface of proteins and transmit the message of the cells
Lymphocytes white blood cells that are antibodies combine with antigens
Antigens potentially harmful proteins
Mitochondria small rod-shaped granules has double membranes power plant of the cell that is responsible for cellular respiration
Endoplasmic Reticulum network of canals that forms a link between the plasmic membrane important in protein synthesis
Ribosomes proteins that contain ribonucleic acid and enzymes used in protein synthesis
Golgi Apparatus appear as flattened sacs; synthesizes carbs
Centrioles pairs of cylinders sitting at right angles; get rid of bacteria in the cell
Nucleus in the center of cell, controls activities of the cell
Nucleoplasm cytoplasm of the nucleus
Chromatin fibers in the cell that condense to make chromosomes
Chromosomes condensed chromatin, rod like chromatin contains DNA
Nucleolus in the nucleus where ribosomes are assembled and stores
Microtubules hollow tubes that form the apparatus and the cilia and flagella
Microvilli structures of epithelial cells made of projections of cytoplasm
Cilia moves constantly to move a liquid in one direction over the surface of the cell
Flagella hair like projections that grow from the surface of the cell to provide the cell with movement
Physical Process movement of ions through a membrane in a downhill gradient
Gradient degree of difference between two divided area of concentration
Diffusion scattering of particles
Osmosis diffusion of water through the membrane
Net Diffusion occurs from a high concentration area to a lower concentrated area
Isonic Solution solution that has the same osmotic pressure as the fluid inside the cell
Hypotonic Solution solutions with a lower osmotic pressure than the fluid in the cell
Hypertonic Solution solution that has a higher osmotic pressure and when a cell is placed in it water will leave the cell
Filtration net movement of fluid through a membrane
Filtration Pressure force of fluid pushing against a surface
Dialysis separation of solutions by their ability to pass through a semi-permeable membrane
Facilitated Diffusion molecules can move very rapidly from a highly concentrated are to a low concentrated area with the help of carrier molecules
Active Transport movement of molecules and ions against a concentration gradient and needs energy from ATP
Catabolic Reactions large molecules are broken down into smaller ones with the releases of energy
Anabolic Reactions small molecules are untied to form larger ones and consume energy; some energy becomes heat
Metabolism "protein cycle" food used to maintain/produce protoplasm
Step 1: Metabolism Absorption: organic substances pass into the cells of the body diffusion of materials throught the plasma membrane plasma membrane makes an indentation that sucks in large molecules (pinocytosis)
Step 2: Metabolism Cellular Respiration, chemical bonds are severed and amounts of energy released
Step 3: Metabolism utilizing energy in a living cell involves a universal intracellular carrier of chemical energy
Catalyst an agent that affects the speed of a chemical reaction without being permanently changed
Coenzymes enzyme activators
DNA double helix five carbon sugar 7 phosphate groups
RNA ribosome uracil no thymine
Anticodon a sequence of three bases
Assimilation process where the cell digests food to make protoplasm
Mitosis process of cell division
Interphase the cell has not started dividing
Prophase the chromatin condenses
Chromatid two daughter chromosomes that are joined at a single point
Metaphase the chromatids seperate
Anaphase the chromatids move to opposite poles of the cell
Telephase the nuclei
Cytokinesis the cell division is complete and the membrane forms
Created by: just_kaylamay