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Respiratory System

Respiration the process of taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide from the lungs and respiratory tract.
alveoli made of one layer of squamous epithelial tissue and contain a rich network of blood capillaries
nose has two openings called nostrils through which the air enters
nasal septum a wall of cartilage that divides the nose into two hollow spaces.
nasal cavities hollow spaces in the nose that are lined with a mucous membrane and have a rich blood supply.
cilia tiny, hairlike structures that filter inhaled air to trap dust and other particles
sinuses cavitites in the skull that surround the nasal area
pharynx throat, lies directly behind the nasal cavities and is divided into three sections.
larynx voicebox, lies between the pharynx and trachea and has nine layers of cartilage.
epiglottis a special leaf-like piece of cartilage that closes the opening into the larynx during swallowing
trachea windpipe, a tube extending from the larynx to the center of the chest.
internal respiration the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the tissue cells and blood stream.
bronchi each bronchus enters a lung and carries air from the trachea to the lung.
bronchioles the smallest branches of bronchi
lungs an organ or respiration located in the thoracic cavity where the divisions of the bronchi and alveoli are found
pleura a membrance or sac enclosed in each lung
ventilation the process of breathing; it involves two phases: inspirtaion and expiration
inspiration inhilation, the process of breathing in air
expiration exhalation, air is forced out of the lungs and air passages.
respiration the process of inspiration and expiration; controlled by the respiratory center in the medulla oblongata of the brain
external respiration the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and blood stream
cellular respiration uses oxygen and nutrients to produce energy, water, and carbon dioxide
asthma a respiratory disorder usually caused by a sensitivity to an allergen. Symptoms of an asthma attack include dyspnea, wheezing, and coughing.
bronchitis an inflammation of the bronchi and bronchial tubes. Caused by infection. Symptoms include excessive mucuous resulting in a productive cough, wheezing, dyspnea, chest pain, and prolonged air expiration.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease a term used to describe any chronic lung disease that results in obstruction of the airways. Smoking is the primary cause, but allergies and chronic respiratory infections are also factors. Treatments include bronchodilators, mucolytics, and cough medicat
Emphysema noninfectious, chronic respiartory condition that occurs when the walls of the alveloi deteriorate and lose their elasticity. causes are heavy smoking and prolonged exposure to air pollutants. treatments are bronchodilators, breathing exercises, prompt tr
Epistaxis a nosebleed that occurs when capillaries in the nose become congested and bleed. It can be caused by an injury or blow to the nose, hypertension, chronic infection, anitcoagulant drugs, and blood diseases such as hemophilia and leukemia.
Influenza Highly contagious viral infection of the upper respiratory system.Symptoms inclue chills, fever, cough, and a sore throat. Immunization is reccommended for the elderly. Bedrest is a treatment.
Laryngitis an inflammation of the larynx and vocal chords. symptoms include hoarseness or loss of voice, sore throat, or dysphagia. treatment includes rest, limited voice use, fluids, and medication.
Lung Cancer A preventable disease becaus eth main cause is exposure to carcinogens in tobacco. Treatments include surgical removal of the cancerous sections of the lung and/or chemotherapy.
Pleurisy An inflammation of the pleura or membranes of the lungs. symptoms include sharp, stabbing pain while breathing; crepitation;dyspnea; and fever. Treatment includes rest and medications to relieve pain and inflammation.
Pneumonia An inflammation or infection of the lungs characterized by exudate in the alveoli. It is usually caused by bacteria, viruses, protozoa, or chemicals. Symptoms include chills, fever, cough, chest pain, dyspnea and fatigue. Treatment includes bed rest, oxyg
Rhinitis An inflammation of the nasal mucous membrane resulting in a runny nose, watery eyes, sneezing, soreness, and congestion. Causes are infections and allergens. Treatment consists of administering fluids and medications to relieve congestion.
Sinusitis An inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the sinuses. Usually caused by bacterium or virus. Symptoms include headache or pressure, dizziness, thick nasal discharge, congestion, and loss of vioce resonance. Treatment includes analgesics, antibiotics,
Sleep apnea A condition in which an individual stops breathing while asleep, causing a measurable decrease in blood oxygen levels. Treatment involves loosing weight, abstaining from the use of alcohol, smoking, or sedatives, and sleeping on the side or stomach. Obesi
Tuberculosis An infectious lung disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Symptoms include fatigue, fever, night sweats, weight loss, hemoptysis, and chest pain. Treatment includes administering drugs for one or more years to destroy the bacteria.
Upper Respiratory Infection Common cold, inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the upper respiratory tract. Caused by viruses. Symptoms include fever, runny nose, watery eyes, congestion, sore throat, and hacking cough. There is no cure. Analgesics, antipyretics, rest, increase
Created by: brittsv



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