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Test 8 notes

lymphatic and vascular

what happens to blood vessels with age become less elastic , causing blood pressure to rise
what happens if theres interruption of blood flow for a few seconds causes loss of consciousness
what happens if the brain is deprived of oxygen for 4 to 5 minutes irreversible brain damage occurs
where does arterial blood flow come from the heart
great saphenous vein longest vein in the body, frequently harvested for use as grafts in coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG)
hepatic veins drain the liver, because of its proximity to the heart, right-sided heart failure can cause congestion in the liver
popliteal vein runs behind the knee
median cubital most common site for drawing blood.
cephalic vein at its distal end frequent site for the administration of intravenous fluids
internal jugular vein drains most of blood from the brain, in right- sided heart failure blood backs up from heart and causes jugular vein distension
inferior vena cava receives blood from lower part of body
superior vena cava receives blood from head, shoulders and arms
bodys main vein vena cava
veins drain blood from organs and other parts of the body and carry it to vena cava, which in turn delivers it to right atrium
places on the body where pulses may be felt carotid artery, brachial, radial (most common), femoral, popliteal (behind knee)posterior tibial, dorsalis pedis
edema accumulation of fluid that appears as swelling in ankles, fingers,abdomen, face caused when fluid filters out of capillaries faster than its reabsorbed
3 main causes of edema increased capillary filtration, reduced capillary reabsorption, obstructed lymphatic drainage
hypotension lower than normal blood pressure
hypertension higher than normal blood pressure
pulse pressure the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure
vasodilation increase in the diameter of a vessel caused by relaxation of vascular muscles
vasoconstriction reduction in the diameter of a vessel that increases resistance to blood flow
splenectomy to remove a spleen surgically, A person can live without a spleen but may be more vulnerable to infection
medium-sized veins formed by convergence of venules on the route toward the heart, medium-sized veins have thicker more elastic walls
venules porous an an exchange fluid with surrounding tissues
venules have very thin walls consisting of little more than a few endothelial cells
venules smallest veins and collect blood from capillaries
arterioles connected to capillaries by short connecting vessels called met-arterioles
arterioles too numerous to be named
arterioles also called resistance arteries through the contraction of smooth muscle in their walls , they can resist the flow of blood thus helping regulate blood pressure as well as control how much blood enters an organ
arterioles smallest arteries
distributing arteries example: brachial artery, femoral artery, renal artery
distributing arteries also called muscular arteries, smaller in diameter than elastic arteries
distributing arteries carry blood farther away from the heart to specific organs and areas of the body
conducting arteries example: aorta, common carotid artery , subclavian artery
conducting arteries also called elastic arteries because of large number of elastic fibers embedded in tunica media
conducting arteries body's largest arteries expand as blood surges into them and recoil when ventricles relax
tunica externa outer layer, made of strong, flexible fibrous connective tissue supports and protects the blood vessel. in veins, thickest of 3 layers in arteries, a little thinner than middle layer
tunica media middle layer; thickest layer composed of smooth muscle and elastic tissue,allows blood vessel to change diameter, smooth muscle in this layer is innervated by the autonomic nervous system
tunica intima innermost layer thats exposed to blood, consists of endothelium, its smooth surface keeps blood flowing freely, without sticking to vessel wall , also prod. chemicals that cause blood vessels to dilate or constrict
capillaries connect the smallest arteries to the smallest veins
veins return blood to the heart
arteries carry blood away from the heart
venous of or relating to a vein or the veins, of or relating to dark red, oxygen- poor blood in the veins and pulmonary artery
aneurysm when a portion of the arterial wall weakens, blood inside artery pushes against weakened area causing it to bulge
vasodilation increase in the diameter of a vessel
what does the lymphatic system consist of lymphatic vessels, lymph (fluid within vessels), lymphatic tissue and lymphatic organs
what are the 3 functions of the lymphatic system? maintenance of fluid balance, absorption of fats, immunity
maintenance of fluid balance in lymphatic system one of the roles is to absorb fluid that may cause massive swelling and return it to the blood stream,
absorption of fats in lymphatic system specialized lymphatic vessels in the small intestines , absorb fats and fat-soluble vitamins
immunity in lymphatic system key component of the immune system, lymph nodes and other lymphatic organs filter lymph to remove microorganisms and foreign parties
anastomosis a natural connection between 2 vessels
lymph clear, colorless fluid similar to plasma but with a lower protein content
where does lymph originate in tissues as fluid left behind following capillary exchange
what may lymph contain lipids (after draining small intestines), lymphocytes (after leaving lymphnodes) hormones, bacteria, viruses and cellular debris
lymphatic vessels have thin walls and valves to prevent backflow
how are lymphatic vessels formed by a thin layer of epithelial cell. unlike cells in veins (which are tightly joined) cells forming lymphatic vessels walls overlap loosely, allowing gaps to exist between the cells
what are the 2 collecting ducts of the lymphatic system right lymphatic and thoracic ducts
right lymphatic duct drains lymph for upper right quadrant of the body into the right subclavian vein
thoracic duct (originates at a dilated portion of a lymphatic vessel in abdomen called cisterna chyli) drains lymph from rest of the body to left subclavian vein
lymphatic organs well defined. include red bone marrow, thymus, lymph nodes, tonsils and spleen
primary lymphatic organs red bone marrow and thymus , provides a location for B and T lymphocytes to mature
secondary lymphatic organs lymph nodes, tonsils and spleen: contain lymphocytes that have matured in either red bone marrow or the thymus
thymus divided into lobules that extend inward from a fibrous outer capsule. each lobule consists of a dense outer cortex and a less dense medulla filled with T lymphocytes
thymus located in mediastinum, the size varies with age, begins to shrink at age 14. also produces hormone Thymosin- promotes development of lymphocytes
lymph nodes as lymph flows along its course, it passes through multiple lymphnodes. when it reaches a node, fluid slows to a trickle as lymph nodes removes pathogens and other foreign material
besides cleansing lymph what else do lymph nodes do also serves as site for final maturation of some types of lymphocytes
what are the major lymph node groups cervical, axillary, inguinal
cervical lymph nodes found in the neck, monitor lymph coming from head and neck
axillary lymph nodes clustered in the armpit; receive lymph from arm and breast
inguinal lymph nodes occur in the groin; they receive lymph from the legs
tonsils masses of lymphoid tissue, forms a protective circle at the back of the throat, guards against pathogens entering the body through the nose or throat
what are the 3 sets of tonsils pharyngeal, palatine, lingual
pharyngeal tonsil also called adenoids,a single tonsil that sits on the wall of the pharynx, just behind the nasal cavity
palatine tonsils pair of tonsils that lies in posterior of the oral cavity
lingual tonsils numerous tonsils that are concentrated in patches on each side of the base of the tongue
tonsillitis when the tonsils swell and become inflamed
symptoms of tonsillitis sore throat, painful swallowing and fever. when caused by a virus, condition usually resolves on its own after a few days. when its caused by a bacteria antibiotics are required
whats recommended if tonsillitis repeatedly occurs tonsillectomy- surgical removal of tonsils
spleen body's largest lymphatic organ, resides in upper left quadrant of the abdomen;just inferior to diaphragm , protected by lower ribs ; surrounded by a fibrous capsule;inward extensions of the capsule divide the spleen into compartments
what are the 2 tissue types found in spleen red pulp and white pulp
white pulp contains compact masses of lymphocyte surrounds the arteries leading into each compartment
red pulp exists along edges of compartments,consists of network of erythrocyte filled sinus supported by framework of reticular fibers&phagocytic cells.blood collects in venous sinuses after passing through reticulae fibers,then returns to the heart through veins
functions of the spleen immunity, destruction of old red blood cells, blood storage, hematopoiesis
first line of defense external barriers, such as skin and mucous membranes, keep most of the pathogens we encounter at bay
second line of defense if pathogen penetrates 1st line of defense, body launches several mechanisms geared at repelling a wide variety of threats, incl. production of phagocytic white blood cells and triggering inflammation and fever
nonspecific immunity responses are aimed at a broad range of attackers, rather than one specific pathogen .also called innate immunity
innate immunity because mechanisms are present from birth, allowing body to repel pathogens to which it has never been exposed
nonspecific immunity protects against a broad range of pathogens, using a variety of mechanisms, such as external barriers, phagocytosis, antimicrobial proteins, natural killer cells, inflammation and fever
external barriers skin and mucous membranes provide 1st line of defense against microorganisms. skin, composed of tough protein, repels most pathogens, while its surface is dry & lacking in nutrients, makes a hostile environment for bacteria
acid mantle thin layer of acid produced by sweat
what do mucous membranes found in digestive, respiratory, urinary and reproductive tracts do? produce mucus that physically traps pathogens
what happens to mucus in respiratory tract swallowed and pathogens are destroyed by stomach acid
lysozome enzyme in mucus, tears, and saliva that destroys bacteria
third line of defense last line of defense is specific immunity, occurs when body retains a memory of a pathogen after defeating it. if exposed to same pathogen in future, body can quickly recognize it, targeting a response at this one specific invader
phagocytosis if a pathogen makes its way past skin or mucous membranes and enters body, it will immediately confront a key player in 2nd line defense; phagocytes
1st step of phagocytosis phagocytes are cells whose sole job is to ingest and destroy microorganisms and other small particles
2nd step of phagocytosis when a phagocyte encounters a microorganism, it sends out membrane projection called pseudopods (or "false feet")
3rd step of phagocytosis pseudo-pods envelop the organism, forming a complete sac called a phagosome
4th step of phagocytosis phagosome travels to the interior of the cell and fuses with a lysosome, which contains digestive enzymes
5th step of phagocytosis digestive enzymes from the lysosome destroy the microorganism,
6th step of phagocytosis the waste products are then released from the cell
types of phagocytes neutrophils and macrophages
neutrophils roam the body seeking out bacteria
macrophages must remain fixed within strategic areas
1st step when neutrophils find site of infection neutrophils travel to sites of infection after being summoned by a chemical released from inflamed cells (chemotaxis)
2nd step when neutrophils find site of infection once there, neutrophils anchor themselves to the inside of the blood capillary
3rd step when neutrophils find site of infection then use enzymes to digest a portion of basement membrane, which allows them to squeeze out of the vessel (process called diapedesis) and enter the inflamed tissue
areas where microbial invasion is likely to occur alveolus of lungs, liver, nerve tissue, bone and spleen
antimicrobial proteins 2 types of proteins help provide nonspecific resistance against bacterial and viral invasion; interferons and the complement system
interferons a protein prod by some cells responding to viral invasion, when a virus infects a cell, it prod. interferon, which it releases to nearby cells. binds to surface receptors on neighboring cells.
interferons this triggers prod. of enzymes w/in cells thatd prevent virus from replicating if it managed to invade
complement system over 20 diff proteins (complement) circulate in bloodstream in an inactive form , waiting to assist in the immune response , a bacteria, or antibodies against bacteria activate complement
What happens once a complement reaction begins it continues as a cascade of chemical reactions with one complement protein activating the next.
how does the complement aid the immune system by coating pathogens, making them attractive to phagocytes, and stimulating inflammation (which summons neutrophils through chemotaxis)
inflammation tissue injury whether from trauma, ischemia, or infection
what does the inflammatory response include processes that clean up and repair the damaged tissue
what happens to most of phagocytes during process of fighting infection most of phagocytes die during process of fighting infection
pus thick yellowish fluid formed from dead cells piling up, along with tissue debris and fluid
abscess when pus accumulates in a tissue cavity
what are 4 classic signs of inflammation redness, swelling, heat and pain
IgG only antibody that can cross placenta to impart temporary immunity to the fetus
IgM active in primary immune response, also involved in agglutination of incompatible blood types
antigen any molecule that triggers an immune response, any foreign substance is said to be antigenic
cellular immunity destroys pathogens that exist within a cell, to accomplish it employs 3 types of T cells
what are the 3 types of T cells employed by cellular immunity cytoxic,helper, memory
cytoxic T cells (also called killer T cells) which carry out the attack
Helper t cells plays a supportive role
Memory T cells remembers the pathogen in case of future invasion
immune system disorders disorders occur when the immune system overreacts to an antigen (hypersensitivity) or opposite fails to react ( as occurs in immunodeficiency disorders)
hypersensitivity involves an inappropriate or excessive response of the immune system
allergy most common type of hypersensitivity
allergy condition in which the immune system reacts to environmental substances (allergens) that most people can tolerate
what are some common allergens mold,dust,pollen,animal dander&foods (chocolate,shellfish, nuts or milk) certain drugs (penicillin,tetracycline, sulfa) can also trigger an allergic response which may be within seonds or delayed for several days
immediate allergic reactions include common allergies, such as those to pollen or bee stings
anaphylaxis severe immediate hypersensitivity reaction affecting the entire body
what are possible symptoms of anaphylaxis red, itchy, raised rash and swelling of face, lips, and tongue
what happens during anaphylaxis release of huge amounts of histamine causes constrictions of the airways- making breathing difficult and vasodilation causing blood pressure to drop
anaphylactic shock when symptoms worsen to the point that circulatory shock and even death may occur. mild anaphylaxis can often be relieved with antihistamines, anaphylactic shock is medical emergency requiring emergency treatment with epinephrine
delayed allergic reaction involve cell-mediated immunity
autoimmune diseases sometimes body's immune system fails to differentiate between self-antigens-the molecules native to a person's body and foreign antigen. when this occurs body prod. antibodies that attack its own tissues
immunodeficiency diseases immune system fails to adequately protect the body against pathogens
lymph nodes and cancer cancer often spreads through lymphatic system when cancerous cells break free of original tumor they often enter lymphatic capillaries and travel to the nearest lymph node
sentinel lymph node first lymph node reached by metastasizing cancer cells
what helps determine future treatment of cancer in lymph nodes closely examining the nodes for cancerous cells following removal
whats the most common route for breast cancer metastasis axillary lymph nodes
lymphedema swelling produced by accumulation of lymph in surrounding tissues
splenic rupture spleens location makes it vulnerable to injury from trauma , because its highly vascular severe injury or rupture can produce a fatal hemorrhage
active immunity immunity that results when the body manufactures its own antibodies or T cells against a pathogen
allergen environmental substance that triggers an allergic response
anaphylaxis severe immediate hypersensitivity reaction affecting the entire body
antibody substance produced by b lymphocytes in response to a specific antigen
antigen any molecule that triggers an immune response
cellular immunity immune response that targets foreign cells or host cells that have become infected with a pathogen
chemotaxis the movement of white blood cells to an area of inflammation in response to the release of chemicals from the injured cells
complement a group of proteins in the blood that through a cascade of chemical reactions, participate in nonspecific immunity
diapedesis process in which neutrophils enzymatically digest a portion of the capillary basement membrane, allowing them to leave the vessel and enter inflamed tissue
histamine substance secreted by injured or irritated cells that produces local vasodilation, among other effects
humoral immunity immune response that uses antibodies to target pathogens outside the host cells
hyperemia increased blood flow to an area
immunoglobulins antibodies
inflammation immunological response to injury, infection, or allergy, marked by increases in regional blood flow, immigration of white blood cells and release of chemical toxins
interferon protein released from virus-infected cells that helps protect nearby cells from invasion
lymph clear, colorless fluid filling lymphatic capillaries
lymph nodes kidney- shaped masses of lymphatic tissue that lie along lymphatic vessels
macrophage important phagocyte that remains fixed in strategic areas
natural killer cells unique group of lymphocytes that continually roam the body seeking out pathogens or diseased cells
neutrophils phagocytes that accumulate rapidly at sites of acute injury
nonspecific immunity 1st and 2nd line of defense; immune response aimed at a broad range of pathogens
passive immunity immunity that results when someone receives antibodies from another person or animal
phagocytosis process by which phagocytes engulf and destroy microorganisms
pyrexia fever
specific immunity 3rd line of defense; immune response targeted at a specific pathogen
spleen the body's largest lymphatic organ ; contains masses of lymphocytes
thymus gland lymphoid organ where T cells mature; located in mediastinal cavity
T lymphocytes lymphocytes that participate in both cellular and humoral immunity ; also called T cells
tonsils masses of lymphoid tissue that form a protective circle at the back of the throat
what is the function of natural killer cells recognize and destroy any foreign cells, incl. cancer cells, virus-infected cells and bacteria- as well as cells of transplanted organs and tissues
what method is most used to destroy infected cells by natural killer cells secretion of chemicals that causes cell to die and break apart (lysis)
antibodies key players in body's immune system, antibodies are gamma globulin proteins formed by B cells and found in plasma and body secretions
immunoglobulins (Ig) another name for antibodies; consist of chains of proteins joined in a way that resembles a y or a t
what are 5 classes of antibodies IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM
IgA populates mucous membranes, intestines, respiratory tract, and urinary tract; also found in saliva, tears and breast milk
IgD exists in the blood in very small amounts ; may activate basophils and mast cells
IgE involved in allergic reactions
IgG primary antibody of secondary immune response, also most abundant of all immunoglobulins, making up 80% of all circulating antibodies
cellular (cell-mediated) immunity aims to destroy foreign cells or host cells that have become infected with a pathogen
humoral (antibody-mediated) immunity focuses on pathogens outside the host cells; sends out antibodies to "mark" a pathogen for later destruction
active immunity body routinely makes its own antibodies or T cells against a pathogen
passive immunity immunity after receiving an injection of antibodies from another person or animal
active immunity permanent or at least long lasting
passive immunity body doesnt develop a memory for the pathogen, so immunity lasts only a few months
what are the 4 classes of immunity natural active, artificial active, natural passive, artificial passive
natural active immunity occurs when the body produces antibodies or T cells after being exposed to a particular antigen
artificial active immunity results when body makes T cells & antibodies against a disease as a result of a vaccination. by injecting vaccine containing dead or weakened(attenuated) pathogens,recipient body produces immune response w/out actually developing the illness
natural passive immunity results when a fetus acquires antibodies from the mother through the placenta or when a baby acquires them through breastfeeding
artificial passive immunity involves obtaining serum from a person or animal thats prod. antibodies against a certain pathogen & then injecting it into someone else. typically used in emergencies for treatment of rabies and botulism
fever aka pyrexia.abnormal elevation of temp. believed fever is beneficial during an illness.besides promoting activity of interferon, an elevated body temp. inhibits the reproduction of bacteria and viruses
lymphocytes relied on by immune system to wage war against pathogens. fall into 1 of 3 classes : natural killer, T cells, B cells
T lymphocytes develop from stem cells in red bone marrow
B lymphocytes commonly called b cells, also begin life as stem cells in red bone marrow. unlike t cells , b cells remain in bone marrow until they are fully mature
natural killer cells unique group of lymphocytes that continually roam the body seeking out pathogens or diseased cells
redness results from hyperemia
heat also results from hyperemia
pain may result from the injured nerves, pressure on the nerves from swelling, or stimulation of nerves by bacterial toxins
swellings function in healing of inflammation compresses veins-reducing venous drainage -while forcing the capillary valves open to promote capillary drainage
swellings function in healing of inflammation helps healing because lymphatic capillaries are more adept at removing bacteria, dead cells and tissue debris than are blood capillaries
redness function in healing of inflammation hyperemia brings materials necessary for healing, including oxygen and amino acids
heats function in healing of inflammation heat in the area increases the metabolic rate, and thus, the rate of tissue repair
pains function in healing of inflammation pain signals that an injury has occurred and serves as a reminder to rest the area to allow healing
specific immunity directed against specific pathogen,after being exposed to a pathogen, immune system retains a memory of encounter, if that pathogen enters the body in future, immune system will recognize immed. allowing it to destroy pathogen before symptoms even develop
swelling results from fluid leaking out of capillaries
sinusoid large, permeable capillary found in organs, such as the liver, spleen, and bone marrow that allows for the passage of large cells and proteins
vasomotion adjusting the diameter of blood vessels
radial artery often palpated to measure a pulse
brachial artery continuation of axillary artery and artery most often used for routine blood pressure measurement
axillary artery the continuation of subclavian artery in the axillary region
subclavian artery supplies blood to the arm
major arteries branching off aortic arch subclavian artery, axillary artery, brachial artery, radial artery
major arteries branching off ilia arteries internal iliac, external iliac, femoral, popliteal,anterior tibial, posterior tibial, dorsalis pedis
right and left common iliac arteries formed by split of distal end of abdominal aorta, supply pelvic organs, thighs and lower extremities
inferior mesenteric artery which supplies the other part of large intestine
superior mesenteric artery supplies most of small intestine and part of large intestine
renal arteries supplies the kidney
hepatic artery supplies the liver
splenic artery supplies the spleen
gastric artery supplies the stomach
abdominal aorta gives rise to celiac trunk which divides into gastric, splenic and hepatic arteries
thoracic aorta supply chest wall and organs within thoracic cavity
aorta originates in left ventricle and is divided into 3 regions
systemic circulation all systemic arteries arise either directly or indirectly from the aorta
systemic circulation involves both arteries and veins
systemic circulation supplies oxygen and nutrients to organs and removes wastes
pulmonary circulation doesn't supply lung tissue itself with oxygen
pulmonary circulation routes blood to and from lungs to exchange carbon dioxide for oxygen
systemic circulation begins at left ventricle and involves circulation of blood through the body
pulmonary circulation begins at the right ventricle and involves circulation of blood through the lungs
abdominal aorta below the diaphragm, branches into right and left common iliac arteries, which supply blood to the lower pelvis and leg
thoracic aorta above the diaphragm
descending aorta (3rd region) travels downward dorsal to the heart through its thoracic and abdominal cavities
left subclavian artery supplies blood to left shoulder and upper arm
left common carotid artery extends into the neck
brachiocephalic through its branches supplies blood to head and right arm
aortic arch (2nd region) curves over the heart and turns downward behind the heart, making an inverted u shape. aortic arch branches into 3 major arteries
ascending aorta (1st region) rises a few cm. above left ventricle. right and left coronary arteries branch off the ascending aorta to supply blood to myocardium
5th step of pulmonary circulation capillaries form venules,which merge to form veins,veins merge until forming pulmonary vein,which returns oxygenated blood to left atrium
4th step of pulmonary circulation capillaries surround alveoli, where exchange of oxygen for carbon dioxide occurs
3rd step of pulmonary circulation pulmonary arteries branch into lobar arteries (one for each lobe of the lung) these arteries branch into smaller arteries until ending at capillary beds
2nd step of pulmonary circulation pulmonary arteries enter lungs
1st step of pulmonary circulation blood leaves right ventricle through pulmonary trunk, which branches into right and left pulmonary arteries
large veins example: Vena Cavae, pulmonary veins, internal jugular veins
large veins formed as medium-sized veins converge, have a thick tunica externa
medium-sized veins Examples: radial and ulnar veins of the forearm, saphenous veins in the leg
medium-sized veins contain one way valves formed from thin endothelium lining, ales keep blood moving toward heart and prevent back flow. veins in leg, which must fight forces of gravity as they transport blood to heart, contains most valves
baroreceptors sensory nerve endings in the aortic arch and carotid arteries that sense changes in pressure
circle of willis circle of arteries at the base of the brain
colloid osmotic pressure process whereby albumin in the blood pulls tissue fluid into capillaries
diastolic pressure pressure within arteries when the ventricle relaxes
diffusion process by which molecules of a substance move from an area of higher to lower concentration
filtration process of removing particles from a solution by allowing the liquid portion to pass through a membrane
peripheral resistance resistance to blood flow resulting from the friction of the blood against the walls of the vessels
what are the most common sites for aneurysms????? aorta, renal arteries , and a circle of arteries at the base of the brain
what happens if an aneurysm ruptures massive hemorrhage will result, even without rupturing, the aneurysm can cause pain and even death by putting pressure on surrounding nerves, tissues and organs
what is the most common cause for aneurysm development atherosclerosis combined with high blood pressure, although may also result from a congenital weakness of the vessel wall, trauma or a bacterial infection
vasomotor center area in the medulla of the brain that sends impulses to alter blood vessel diameter and therefore blood pressure
systolic pressure pressure in arteries when the ventricles eject blood
principal vein brachiocephalic
principal vein subclavian
principal vein superior vena cava
principal vein inferior vena cava
principal vein axillary
principal vein hepatic
principal vein common iliac
principal vein internal iliac
principal vein external iliac
principal vein great saphenous
principal vein anterior tibial
principal vein internal jugular
principal vein external jugular
principal vein cephalic
principal vein basilic
principal vein median cubital
principal vein radial
principal vein femoral
principal vein popliteal
principal vein fibular (peroneal)
principal vein posterior tibial
Created by: marys210



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