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genotype ? the genetic makeup, or allele combination, for a trait.
gene chemical factors that determine traits
hybrid the offspring produced by parents with different trait; heterozygous
allele different choice for a gene
inherit to receive genetic traits from a parent
pedigree a chart that shows genetic relationship within a family
trait a specific characteristic that varies from one individual to another
dominant the allele that always appears in the phenotype if present in the genotype
Recessive the allele that only appears in the phenotype if a dominant allele is not present in the genotype
homozygous genotype that has two of the same alleles
pure/true-breeding produce offspring identical to themselves ;homozygous
co-dominance when alleles are both dominant and both traits show up in the phenotype of a heterozygote at the same time
carrier females that are heterozygous for an x-linked trait and could pass on the defective allele to their offspring even if they are normal
heterozygous genotype that has two different alleles for a trait
phenotype the appearance or physical characteristics that are expressed
incomplete dominance when one allele is not completely dominant and a heterozygote has a blended "in-between" phenotype
sex-linked traits traits that show up in different percentages in males and female because the genes are carried on the sex chromosomes
probability the likelihood that a particular event will occur
chemical reaction process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals
reactants the elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction
catalyst a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
product the elements or compound produced by a chemical reaction
substrate the reactants of an enzyme catalyzed reaction
enzyme proteins that act as biological catalyst, speed up chemical reactions in cells
activation energy the energy needed to start a chemical reaction
optimal best or most favorable conditions
denature to make a protein can function properly
tolerance range where the protein can function properly
active site location on an enzyme where the substrate binds
pigment light absorbing molecules
photosynthesis plants use sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into high energy carbohydrates and oxygen
autotroph organisms that can use the light energy from the sun to produce food
chlorophyll the principal plant pigment
adenosine triphosphate chemical compound used to store and release energy, consists of adenine,ribose,and 2 phosphate groups
water reactant of photosynthesis
carbon dioxide reactant of photosynthesis
oxygen product of photosynthesis
glucose product of photosynthesis
chloroplast organelle where photosynthesis occurs
mitochondria organelle where cellular respiration occurs
cellular respiration cellular respiration realeases energy by breaking down glucose in the presence of oxygen
DNA contains the instructions for, and controls, the production of proteins
helicase an enzyme that "unzips" DNA by breaking the hydrogen bonds that hold the two strands together
guanine a purine nitrogen base in DNA that pairs with cytosine
base pairing Chargaff's rules which state that A = T and C =G
cytosine a pyrimidine nitrogen base in DNA that pairs with guanine
Pyrimidines nitrogen bases in DNA that have one ring
thymine a pyrimidine nitrogen base in DNA that pairs with adenine
template a single DNA strand that serves as a guide for making the matching DNA strand
deoxyribose the pentose sugar that helps make up the sides ("rungs") of DNA
chromatin thick coiled fibers of DNA spread out in the nucleus, allows reading of the DNA code
chromosome bundles of tight packed and condensed DNA, makes it easier for DNA to move when a cell gets ready to divide
replication the process of copying DNA
complimentary the new strand of DNA created during replication that matches the original strands of DNA
nucleotide the monomer (subunit ) of DNA that consists of a phosphate, sugar, and a nitrogen base
double helix the shape of DNA, like a twisted ladder or spiral staircase
purines nitrogen bases in DNA that have two rings
adenine a purine nitrogen base in DNA that pairs with thymine
histones proteins that DNA wraps around to form chromatin and chromosomes
replication fork sites in the DNA where the two strands seperate and replication occurs
DNA polymerase an enzyme that joins individual nucleotides to replicate a DNA molecule, and then proofreads the new DNA
cell cycle series of events that the cell goes through as it grows and divide division of the nucleus and the cytoplasm creates 2 genetical daughter cells
centromere area where chromatids are attached
zygote a fertilized egg
mitosis division of the cell's nucleus
haploid cell with only half of each pair of chromosomes "one set"
anaphase when sister chromatids are separated and pulled toward opposite centrioles
gamete the sperm and the egg
cytokinesis division of the cytoplasm
tetrad structure formed when homologous chromosomes pair up
meiosis number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half creates 4 genetically different haploid daughter cells
chromatin one of two identical copies of a chromosome
prophase when chromosome become visible spindles appear nuclear envelope breaks down
fertilization the joining of the gametes
centriole area where chromatids are attached to each other usually near center
telophase when chromosomes return to chromatin spindles disappear and the nuclear envelopes reforms
homologous chromosomes that match because they have the same genes one came from the male parent and the other came from the female parent
diploid cell a full set of chromosomes pairs "two sets"
metaphase when chromosomes line up in the middle or at the equator
spindle fanlike microtubules that help seperate the chromosomes
Interphase when the cell replicates (copies) the DNA and prepares for mitosis
offspring the new organism produced from the reproductive process of an animal or plant; a person's child
crossing-over when chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids and create new combination of alleles
chromosome DNA when it is replicating, threadlike coils
chromatin DNA when it is not replicating, spread out in granular form
ribosome organelle that makes proteins
lysosome organelle that contains digestive enzymes that break down molecules and remove waste
nucleolus location in the nucleus where assembly of ribosomes begins
organelle "little organs" that are specialized structures within cells
mitochondrion organelle that converts glucose ( food) into ATP (energy for cell); power house for the cell
endoplasmic reticulum internal membrane system in the cells where lipid components of the cell membrane are made, and some proteins are modified
vacuole organelles that store water, salt, proteins and carbohydrates
nuclear envelope two membranes surrounding the nucleus
cytoplasm jelly like material in the cell that contains everything outside of the nucleus
chloroplast organelle in plant cells that uses energy from sunlight to make glucose during photosynthesis
Eukaryotic cells that have genetic material (DNA) inside of a nucleus
cytoskeleton a network of protein filaments that helps the cell maintain its shape, and also helps in movement
cell wall made of cellulose and provides additional support for plant cells
Golgi apparatus organelle that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and other materials for storage in the cell or secretion out of the cell
chromosome DNA coiled up in condensed form (ready to replicate)
chromatin DNA in spread out in granular form (in resting phase)
prokaryotic cells that have genetic material (DNA) not inside the nucleus
nucleus organelle that contains nearly all the cell's DNA
cell membrane outter boundary of the cell that regulates what enters and exits the cell
Diffusion particles move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
permeable solutes are able to pass through: can cross
Hypertonic solute concentration outside of the cell is higher than inside the cell
Hydrophobic fear water; - lipid tails of phospholipids
osmosis the diffusion of water molecules through a semi-permeable membrane
Isotonic solute concentration is equal outside and inside the cell
exocytosis vessicles transport molecules out of the cell; requires energy
Equilibrium the solute concentration is equal everywhere in a solution
semi-permeable some solutes can pass through, some solutes can not pass through
hypotonic solute concentration is lower outside the cell than inside the cell
hydrophilic like water; phospho-heads of phospholipids
facilitated diffusion diffusion through channel proteins in the cell membrane
impermeable solutes are not able to pass through; they can not cross
passive transport transport in or out of the cell requires no energy; molecules move down their concentration gradient
phagocytosis cells use vesicles to "eat" large molecules or whole cells
concentration gradient difference in concentration; when there is an area of high concentration and an area of low concentration
phospholipid -bilayer two layers of phosphlipids with hydrophilic heads out and hydrophobic tails in
endocytosis vessicles transport molecules into the cell; requires energy
pinocytosis cells use vessicles to "drink" fluid or small molecules
active transport transport in or out of the cell requires energy; molecules move up/against their concentration gradient
monomer single unit
amino acid the monomer for proteins
nucleic acid polymers built from nucleotides
polymers multiple monomers connected together
proteins polymer built from amino acids
nucleotides the monomer for nucleic acids, made of a 5-carbon sugar, nitrogenous base, and phosphate groups
macromolecule giant molecules, made of many molecules together
lipids composed of fatty acids and glycerols
monosaccharide a single sugar molecule
fatty acids compounds that combine with glycerol to make a lipid
glycerol a molecule that combines with fatty acids to make a lipid
carbonhydrate main source of energy for living things
polysaccharide polymers built from many monosaccharides
Qualitative descriptive data
Quantative numerical data
Created by: Daisy Soriano
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