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Comparative anatomy

Nervous system

Functions monitor and react to external and internal environment.stores info and receive info from CNS and PNS.
CNS Central Nervous System.brain and spinal cord
PNS Peripheral nervous system.nerves leading two and from the CNS
Fish membranes Primitive menix
Amphibians,reptiles and most birds membranes Dura mater on out side,secondary menix
Mammal membranes Dura mater,arachnoid mater,pia mater
Brain Gray matter on outside,thin area,secondary info(cell bodies),cognition
Brain white matter on inside,insulating axons(myelin),transmits info
Gyri Ridges along cerebrum
Sulci Grooves in the cerebrum
What are the three embryological parts of the brain? prosencephalon,mesencephalon,rhombencephalon
what is the prosencephalon broken into? represents the forebrain. Telencephalon,diencephalon
what region of the brain does the mesencephalon represent? represents the midbrain.
what is the rhombencephalon broken into? metencephalon,myelencephalon.
Rhombencephalon most primitive part of the brain.
Myelencephalon of the rhombencephalon medulla which controls basic autonomic functions(heart rate,breathing rate). this is the switching point for white and gray matter.
metencephalon of the rhombencephalon cerebellum which controls coordination and equilibrium(motor functions). the body and vermis are very folded.large in fish birds and mammals.has arbor vitae.
arbor vitae white matter on the inside of the cerebellum
mesencephalon midbrain.contains pons,optic lobes.auditory info that transmits to inferior colliculus.starts to enlarge in amniotes.
pons floor of the mid brain.this is an autonomic relay point
optic lobes transmit to superior colliculus. this starts to enlarge in fish and amphibians
what is the tectum? roof of the midbrain
diencephalon of the prosencephalon consist of what? epithalamus,thalamus,hypothalamus.r
epithalamus pinal gland(median(parietal)eye),choroid plexus secretes CSF. most dordal
Thalamus relay center to cerebrum,interpret pain and temp.sleep and wake cycle.
hyothalamus homeostasis center(regulation).optic chiasma ventral.pituitary ventral.most vental
telencephalon of the prosencephalon consists of what? cerebral hemispheres,olfactory bulb and lobes,corpus callosum or commissure
cerebral hemispheres increase in size(amniotes are about 20x larger).duplication of centers that process stimulii:cerebral cortex,hippocampus,basal ganglia
what stilmulii does the cerebral cortex process? sensory and motor.
What stimulii does the hippocampus process? recent memory
what stimulii does the basal ganglia process? motor and decision making
the corpus callosum or commissure consists of what? decussating(crossing) nerve tracts
all brain regions have what features? internal hollow ventricles,cerebrospinal fluid secreted by choroid plexus.hydrocephalus(water on the brain) occurs when intervenricular foramina are blocked and CSF cant drain.
neuron consist of what three parts? cell body,dendrites,axon
what is a synapse a gap between the neurons
what is a nerve axons bundled together in connective tissue sheath(epineurium)
what are the two masses that make up the brain?half makes up the mass of the brain and the spinal cord. neurons(mass of brain and spinal cord) and neurogilia
neurogilia cells secretes myelin and removes debris
what are neurogilia cells in the central nervous system called? oligodendroglial
what are neurogilia cells in the PNS called? Schwann cells
nodes of Ranvier are the spaces between the myelin
sensory nerves cell bodies in PNS(usually ganglia).revieve messages from PNS(external and internal stilmui)
motor nerves (action). cell bodies in CNS.send messages out and to muscles and glands(effectors).
mixed nerve contain both sensory and motor nerves.most vertebrate nerves are mixed.
Spinal cord shorter than vertebral column because of the swelling in cerebral and lumbar regions(innervation of limbs). send and recieve messages to limbs therefore spinal cord has to be thicker.these nerves are split into branches near this.
gray matter inside spinal cord.cytoplasm of cell bodies
white matter outside spinal cord.axons(myelin sheaths)(bring messages away)
dorsal root of spinal nerve enters spinal cord dorsally.carries sensory fibers.sensory ganglion just outside the spinal cord.
ventral root of spinal nerve leaves the spinal cord ventrally.carries motor fibers(in gray matter).interneurons in spinal cord to coordinate between sensory and motor.
what is the pathway of a reflux arc sensory receptor,sensory neuron,into dorsal root of spinal cord,interneuron in spinal cord,out ventral root of spinal cord,motor neuron,to muscle
Autonomic nervous system subdivision of PNS.involuntary nervous system.enervates viscera,thoracic and lumbar regions(sympathetic system),craniosacral regions(parasympathetic).
thoracic and lumbar regions of the automonic nervous system control fight or flight(rev up heart,decrease digestion).sympathetic system
craniosacral regions of automonic nervous system and repose.low heart rate,increase digestion,relaxing
how many cranial nerves do amniotes and sarcopterygii have? 12 cranial nerves
how many cranial nerves do amphibians and fish have? 10 cranial nerves.the other 2 cranial nerves were originally spinal nerves that become incorporated into the brain case.
Nerve I olfactory.sensory.smell.some tetrapods have separate vomeronasal nerves
Nerve II cross in optic chiasma
Nerve III Oculomotor.motor.moves eyes
Nerve IV Trochlear.motor.moves eyes
Nerve V Trigeminal.Both.Facial and jaw innervation
Nerve VI abducens.motor.moves eyes
Nerve VII Facial.both.taste,facial epression,saliva,tears
Nerve VIII Auditory.sensory.also called vestibulocochlear.hearing and equilibrium.
Nerve IX Glossopharyngeal(tongue,throat).both.back of tongue,taste,sense,carotid blood pressure,swallowing.
Nerve X vagus.both.sense aortic blood pressure,sense taste,slows heart, stimulates digestion.regulates visera.
Nerve XI Accessory(spinal accessory b/c caudal).motor.swallowing muscles
Nerve XII hypoglossal.motor.hyoid,tongue,speaking.
Created by: ejohnson17



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