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Chapter 18 part 2

AP Euro - Enlightenment

Royal Society Most successful and prestigious society in England, created in 1660.
Enlightenment Emergence of a secular world view for the first time in human history. Natural science and reason could explain all aspects of life Belief in autonomy of man's intellect apart from God Faith in reason, rather than faith in revelation Deism
Deism Religious arm of the Enlightenment The universal was governed by "natural law", not by a personal God
John Locke, Two Treaties of Civil Government 1690, State of nature: Humans are basically good but lack protection The purpose of the government is to protect "natural rights" of the people: life, liberty and property
Essay Concerning Human Understanding 1690 Stressed the importance of the environment on human development: Education was the key Tabula Rasa For progress to occur in society, education was critical in determining human development.
Tabula Rasa The human mind was born as a blank slate and registered input from the senses passively
Philosophes Committed to the fundamental reform of society By 1775, much of western Europe's society educated elite had embraced the Enlightenment
Voltaire Perhaps the most influential of all Enlightenment philosophers Challenged traditional Catholic theology His influential social criticism inspired many to call for change, setting the stage for the French Revolution
"Ecrasez L'infame" Crush the Infamous King
Baron de Montesquieu, Spirit of Laws (1689-1755) Member of the French nobility; hated the absolutism of Louis XIV. Book(1748): called for separation of powers in government into three branches Goal: prevent tyranny and promote liberty
Checks and Balances This would ensure that no single branch of gov’t became too powerful as the other two branches could check excess power.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) Social Contract Though considered part of the Enlightenment, more accurately seen as a founder of the Romantic Movement. Believed man in a simpler state of nature was good a noble savage"and was corrupted by the materialism of civilization.
Social Contract, 1762 Believed that too much of an emphasis on property, and not enough consideration of people, was a root cause of social injustice. General Will
General Will a consensus of the majority,should control a nation. This strongly implied democracy. Downside: Minority viewpoints were not recognized.
"Noble Savage" State of nature Was corrupted by the materialism of civilization.
Denis Diderot, The Encyclopedia Perhaps the greatest and most representative work of the philosophes This was (completed in 1765)
Marquis de Beccaria On Crimes and Punishment (1764) Sought to humanize criminal law based on Enlightenment concepts of reason and equality before the law His views influenced the Enlightened Despots:
Francois Quesnay (1694-1774) Leader of the physiocrats in France who opposed mercantilist policies Sought to reform the existing agrarian system by instituting laissez faire in agriculture
Physiocrats They opposed mercantilist policies
Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations 1727-1790 Considered the “Bible” of capitalism. Refined and expanded laissez-faire philosophy of the physiocrats. Believed the economy is governed by the natural laws of supply and demand.
Salon Movement Women played a major role in this. Many of the brightest minds of the Enlightenment assembled in _____ to discuss the major issues of the day Certain women organized ____ and took part in the discussions
Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797) promoted political & educational equality for women
Baron Paul d'Holbach (1723-89) System of Nature Argued humans were essentially like machines, completely determined by outside forces (determinism). His staunch atheism, determinism and attacks on Christianity undermined the Enlightenment
David Hume Argued against faith in both natural law and faith Claimed that human ideas were merely the result of sensory experiences; human reason could not go beyond what was experienced through the senses. Undermined Enlightenment’s emphasis on reason.
Jean de Condorcet (1743-1794) Progress of the Human Mind His utopian ideas also undermined the legitimacy of Enlightenment ideas. Identified 9 stages of human progress that had already occurred and predicted the 10th stage would bring perfection.
Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) – greatest German philosopher of the Enlightenment Separated science and morality into separate branches of knowledge. Science could describe nature, it could not provide a guide for morality
Classical Liberalism The political outgrowth of the Enlightenment Belief in laissez faire capitalism Belief in progress human dignity and human happiness Religious toleration, freedom of speech & the press, just punishments for crimes, and equal treatment before the law
German pietism Argued need for spiritual conversion and religious experience
Methodism Taught need for spiritual regeneration and a moral life that would demonstrate one’s having been “born-again”.
John Wesley (1703-91): Founder of Methodism
Jansenism (Catholic sect) in France argued against idea of an uninvolved or impersonal God
Enlightened Despotism The philosophes inspired and supported the reforms of the _______. Believed absolute rulers should promote the good of the people Yet believed, like Hobbes earlier, that people were not capable of ruling themselves
Frederick the Great One of the greatest rulers in German history Son of Fredrick William I who gave him a strong military education Profoundly influenced by the Enlightenment
War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Frederick invaded and annexed Silesia, part of the Austrian Hapsburg empire Frederick violated Austria’s Pragmatic Sanction
Silesia Was invaded and annexed by Frederick part of the Austrian Hapsburg empire
Seven Years' War Cause: Maria Teresa sought to regain Silesia from Prussia and gained Russia and France as allies. Goal of Austria, Russia and France was to conquer Prussia and divide its territories among the winners
Diplomatic Revolution of 1756 France and Austria, traditional enemies, now allied against Prussia Bloodiest war in Europe since the Thirty Years’ War of the 17th century.
Treaty of Paris (1763) Most important peace treaty of the 18th century and most important since the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) Prussia permanently retained Silesia France lost all its colonies in North America to Great Britain Britain gained more territory in India
"First servant of the state" Frederick the Great claimed himself to be.
Catherine the Great (r. 1762-1796) One of greatest rulers in European history As a reformer, perhaps the least “enlightened” of the Enlightened Despots German princess who became Queen after her husband, Peter III, was assassinated during the Seven Years’ War
Pugachev Rebellion (1773)Pugachev led a huge serf uprising. Demanded end to serfdom, taxes and army service. People were murdered all over southwestern Russia. Catherine needed support of nobility and gave them absolute control of serfs.
Polish Partitions As a result of several Eastern European military conflicts, the map of Europe had to be withdrawn, three times to be exact. This reorganization of territory was at the expense of a nation which was ultimately erased from the map of Europe.
Liberum veto Required unanimous agreement for the government to act.
Maria Theresa (r. 1740-1780) (not an Enlightened despot) Assumed the Habsburg empire from her father, Charles VII.
Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 Issued by Leopold and agreed to by the Great Powers that the Habsburg Empire would remain intact under his daughter’s rule
Joseph II (r. 1780-1790) Ruled with his mother, Maria Theresa, as co regent until her death in 1780 Deeply influenced by the Enlightenment and its emphasis on reforms Firm believer in absolutism and he could be ruthless in achieving his goals
Madame de Geoffrin One of the leading female figures in the French Enlightenment. From 1750–1777, Played host to many of the most influential Philosophes and Encyclopédistes of her time
Madame de Staël A French woman of letters of Swiss origin whose lifetime overlapped with the events of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic era.
John Harrison, chronometer Improvements in exploration (e.g. John Harrison’s chronometer gave mariners the ability to easily determine longitude by the late- 18th century)
Created by: Jrod42