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ITM Heart

Ch. 12

heart triangular, in mediastinum, size of fist
atria upper receiving chamber, small thinner less muscular walls
ventricles lower discharging chambers, thicker muscular walls
left ventricles thickest muscular wall
septum wall that separates chambers
interatrial septum separates right and left atria
interventricular septum separates right and left ventricles
AV valves atrio-ventricular valves
tricuspid between right atrium and left ventricle
SL valves semi-lunar valves
pulmonary semilunar balve between right ventricle and pulmonary artery
aortic semilunar valve between left ventricle and aorta
*endocardium lines innermost surface, walls of chambers
*myocardium cardiac muscle tissue
*endocarditis inflammation of endocardium, can lead to blood clots
*epicardium outer membrane of heart
*pericardium outermost loosely fitting covering
*pericardium produces lubricating fluid
peicarditis inflammation of pericardium
aorta main vessel, biggest artery
aorta carries "oxygenated" blood from left ventricle to body
pulmonary artery carries "deoxygenated" blood from right ventricle to lungs
pulmonary veins carries "oxygenated" blood from lungs to left atrium
superior vena cava & inferior vena cava return "deoxygenated" blood from body to right atria
arteries take blood"away" from heart
veins return blood "to" the heart
right & left coronary arteries coronary blood supply
right & left coronary arteries branch off aorta to supply myocardium, blockage may result in angina or heart attack
*complete heart beat cycle consists of diastole, relaxation of ventricles, systole, contraction of ventricles
*normal heart rate around 72 beats per minute
*tachycardia fast heart rate over 100 beats per minute
*bradycardia slow heart rate onder 60 beats per minute
*stroke volume volume of blood release from ventricle with each contraction
*cardiac output volume of blood pumped by one ventricle in one minute
cardiac output = stroke volume x heart rate (co=sv x hr)
*lub dub sounds made by heart during cardiac cycle
lub closing of tricuspid and mitral valves
dub closing of aortic and pulmonary semilunar valves
*ANS (autonomic involuntary nervous system) controls rate of heart
intercalated discs specialized nervous tissue at junctions between cardiac muscle cells , electronically link all cardiac muscle fibers
SA node (sinoatrial node) pacemaker, located in superior wall of right atrium
SA node initiates contraction of atria
AV node (atrioventricular node) located in inferior wass of right atrium
AV node passes signal to ventricles
bundle of his (AV bundles) fibers run through septum
purkinje fibers fibers run through lateral walls of ventricles
heart block electrical signal does not reach ventricles, rate of ventricular contractions is decreased, may be treated with pacemaker
electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG) graphic recording of hearts electrical activity
P wave depolarization of atria, triggers contraction
QRS complex depolarization of ventricles
T wave repolarization of ventricles, relaxation
Created by: mjjjmom
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