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MTEL GC - History

MTEL General Curriculum - History and Social Science Review

TermDefinition
1492 Christopher Columbus landed in the New World
Adena-Hopewell Indians Known for creating large burial mounds, using metal tools, traded and moved within large area of North America
Mesoamerican civilizations Including Mayans and Aztecs; occupied Central America and much of Mexico, developed strong agricultural system and trade networks, followed solar calendar, participated in ritualistic religious and political ceremonies
Mexico City founded 1325 - Aztecs founded present-day Mexico City
Juan Ponce de Leon, Ferdinand Magellan, Vasco Nunez de Balboa Sailed to Central and South America, and parts of North America
1519 Spanish explorer Hernan Cortes arrived in Mexico; Montezuma II reigned over 5 million people
Wampanoag, Pennacook, Massachusetts Tribal groups in Massachusetts; over 30,000 indigenous people were living in Mass when the Europeans first began exploring the continent
1607 London group of the Virginia Company established first English settlement in Jamestown, Virginia; motivated by economic interest - gold prospecting
Puritans Pilgrims' name prior to their departure from England; religious group influenced by John Calvin
December 25, 1619 Pilgrims landed in Plymouth
Mayflower Compact Signed by the Puritans/Pilgrims; agreement to follow rules established by majority rule
Original 13 colonies Virginia (1607), Massachusetts (1620), New Hampshire (1623), New Jersey (1623), New York (1624), Maryland (1632), Rhode Island (1636), Connecticut (1636), Delaware (1638), North Carolina (1653), South Carolina (1663), Pennsylvania (1682), Georgia (1732)
French and Indian War 1754-1763; British fought the French and their native allies for control of North America; resulted in British control of North America
Treaty of Paris 1763 - Ended the French and Indian War
Stamp Act of 1763 Imposed a direct tax on documents such as wills, marriage licenses, newspapers, and playing cards; enacted to help support cost of British troops in the colonies; Stamp Act of Congress attempted to protest this tax and seek repeal
Declaratory Act; Townshend Act Further taxes imposed on the colonists by the British
Sons of Liberty Group formed to boycott British goods and organized protests; Samuel Adams a founder
Boston Massacre 1770; Group of colonists harassing guards at the Custom House in Boston fired upon, becoming martyrs for the radical cause; included Crispus Attucks, a runaway Mulatto slave and one of the first patriotic heroes of the revolution
Boston Tea Party 1773; Colonist threw tea into Boston harbor, refusing to pay taxes to the British Government
Coercive Acts Known as the Intolerable Acts among Patriots; Parliament closed the port of Boston until the tea had been paid for, increasing the power of Mass' royalist officials, and allowed for the quartering of troops everywhere
First Continental Congress 1774; A meeting where a collective call for a repeal of the Intolerable Acts was made and the immediate formation of local militias
Battle of Concord and Lexington April 1775; British learned weapons were stock piled in Concord, sent 800 troops; Patriots sent three men to sound a warning, Paul Revere, William Dawes, Dr. Samuel Prescott
Battle of Bunker Hill June 1775
Second Continental Congress 1775
Declaration of Independence July 4, 1776; Largely attributed to the work of Thomas Jefferson; Language based on John Locke's philosophy - government should inherit power from the people; power invested in the individual
Articles of Confederation Written 1777, ratified 1781; Provided the first constitution for the new nation
Shays' Rebellion 1786; Poor farmers revolted against existing conditions; helped created a more unified Constitution
Federalist Papers Circulated by supporters of the new Constitution, including Alexander Hamilton and James Madison
Bill of Rights 1791 - Enumerated rights of citizens such as freedom of speech and right to a fair trial
Constitution Ratified by all 13 colonies by 1791
Louisiana Purchase 1803; Louisiana Territory purchased from France - Thomas Jefferson purchased from Napoleon
Lewis and Clark Expedition 1804; Government funded exploration of the Louisiana Territory - in the name of scientific and geographic research
War of 1812 Conflict with the British; American victory
Monroe Doctrine 1823; Issued by president James Monroe - a declaration that stated the dominance of the Western Hemisphere and told the European nations to cease their interference
Manifest Destiny A divine justification for moving westward into new lands
Missouri Compromise of 1820 Addressed the question of whether to allow slavery in newly settled territories; Maine admitted to Union as free state and Missouri as a slave state to preserve balance, while slavery became prohibited in any future state made from Louisiana Purchase
California Gold Rush 1849; Greatly expanded California's population, led to apply for admission to the union as a free state
Compromise of 1850 Law that allowed new territories to decide the matter of slavery for themselves, based on the principle of "popular sovereignty"
Kansas-Nebraska Act Senator Stephen A. Douglas argued that any territory desiring to exclude slavery could do so by declining to pass laws to protect it; repealed Missouri Compromise
Fugitive Slave Act 1850; Law required citizens to capture and return escaped slaves, under penalty of fine and imprisonment, without the option of a jury trial
Dred Scott Case of 1857 Supreme Court ruled that slaves who resided temporarily in free states or territories were still slaves, and that Congress did not have the authority to exclude slavery from a territory; Free only through birth of naturalization
Confederacy 1861; 11 southern states seceded from the union with the intention of forming their own nation and government
Civil War April 12, 1861 - Confederate troops fired on Union-held Fort Sumter in Charleston, SC, marking start of the war
Battle of Gettysburg 1863; Marked a turning point as Confederate Army sustained crippling loss; 2-days
Emancipation Proclamation 1863; President Lincoln declared all slaves residing in the Confederacy would be free
54th Massachusetts Infantry African American regiment led by Colonel Robert Gould Shaw
General William Tecumseh Sherman Blazed a ruthless path of destruction through Georgia and South Carolina, working in tandem with Union Commander Ulysses S. Grant, draining Confederate Army resources
General Robert E. Lee April 9, 1865; As Union soldiers surrounded Richmond, Lee and Confederate soldiers finally forced to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse
John Wilkes Booth Assassinated Abraham Lincoln
Reconstruction 1865-1877; Physical and geographical, psychological and economic devastation led to this period; Lincoln's plans announced before assassination
Civil Rights Act of 1866 Officially granted blacks citizenship and denied all states the power to restrict or deny them rights; Violent oppression continued
13th Amendment Abolished slavery
14th Amendment Extended citizenship to blacks
15th Amendment Banned race as a voting condition
Sharecropping Essentially still slavery, a system of perpetual debt; established blacks as tenant farmers beholden to white landowners
Ku Klux Klan 1867 - Held its first meeting
Industrialization By 1900 - Almost 200,000 miles of railroad
Urbanization Relocation to cities; Mass factories produced more than one-third of the nation's textiles - Lowell, Lawrence, New Bedford, Fall River - leaders in cotton industry; Lynn, Brockton, Haverhill, Marlborough, Worcester - boots and shoes
John D. Rockefeller Industrialist who amassed a great fortune
Andrew Carnegie Industrialist who amassed a great fortune
Theodore Roosevelt Elected in 1900 as a Progressive candidate; Aimed at restraining corporate monopolies/trusts and promoting economic competition
The Progressive Era Attempted a purification of politics
Muckrakers Journals who exposed corruption and greed during the Progressive Era
World War I 1914 - Broke out in Europe; 1917 - German U-boats began attacks on British merchant ships; 1918 - Ended
League of Nations Founded after WWI ended in 1918; An international organization where member organization could unite to ensure peace and security for all
Great Depression Stock market crash October 29, 1929 (Black Tuesday); By 1932, 24% American population unemployed
New Deal Franklin Roosevelt; Huge reforms for public works projects, agricultural and business regulation, farm relief, and the establishment of the social security system
World War II European Campaign and Pacific Campaign; 1938-1941 American aided Allied forces as they fought Axis powers
Axis Powers, WWII Germany, Italy, Japan
Isolationism Belief that the U.S. should not participate in war outside the Western Hemisphere
Pearl Harbor Attacked by Japanese fighter planes on December 7, 1941
Pacific Campaign, WWII Battle of Midway (June 1942), Iowa Jima (1945), and Okinawa (1945)
D-Day June 6, 1944; American and British troops began their most successful and aggressive push against the still formidable Germany and other Axis forces
Manhattan Project Scientists who created the first atomic bomb; Successfully tested in New Mexico on July 6, 1945
Atomic Bombs President Truman ordered the use of atomic bombs on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, and Nagasaki on August 9, 1945; Japan surrendered the next day; Estimated 210,000 people died
Soviet Union By 1948 - Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia
Truman Doctrine Argued that the United States had to support populations who were resisting Communist movements
Containment Policy of U.S. opposition to the expansion of communism
Domino Theory Posited that if one country in a region fell to communism, surrounding countries would topple like dominoes; Used as justification for U.S. intervention in the Vietnam War
Vietnam War 1964-1975
Civil Rights Movement 1950s
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas NAACP lawyer Thurgood Marshall argued for Brown against segregation, winning Supreme Court case in 1954 - "separate but equal" public schools unconstitutional
Thurgood Marshall NAACP appointed lawyer for Brown; President Johnson appointed him first African American Supreme Court Justice
Jim Crow Laws Laws which divided practically every aspect of life into black and white
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Baptist preacher who preached nonviolence; organized sit-ins, boycotts, and freedom rides; led to Civil Rights Act and Voting Rights Act of 1964
Civil Rights Act and Voting Rights Act Signed by President Lyndon Johnson in 1964
Rosa Parks Seamstress and secretary of NAACP who refused to move during the Montgomery bus boycott of 1955 and was arrested, charged with violating the segregation laws
Seneca Falls Convention, NY Hosted first women's rights meeting in 1848
Elizabeth Cady Stanton Featured speaker at the Seneca Falls Convention, 1848; Proposed resolutions for women's rights in legal and political matterns
Suffrage Women's right to vote; Civil Rights Act of 1866 and 13th - 15th Amendments failed to include women and Native Americans
Women Granted Right to Vote 1919, at the end of WWI
The Feminine Mystique Betty Friedan, 1963
National Organization for Women (NOW) 1966; advocated for the Equal Rights Amendment, changes to divorce laws, and legalization of abortion
Soviet Union collapsed 1989
Globalization Theory by which the entire planet is deeply connected through the exchange of goods and knowledge
Family and Medical Leave Act; North American Free Trade Agreement Both signed by Bill Clinton, 43rd president
The Constitution Seven articles delineate how the government should be organized and function; creates a strong central government - provides a system of checks and balances among three branches of government
Three Branches of Government Legislative, executive, judicial
Legislative Branch Makes laws and has power to declare war; Senate - 100 senators, 6 year terms; House of Representatives - 436, two-year terms
Executive Branch Enforces laws; President signs bills into law and serves as Commander-in-Chief of Armed Forces
Judicial Branch Interprets the constitutionality of laws; Supreme Court seats 9 members who are appointed for life by the president
Rule of Law All Americans are governed by the rule of law; No individual, organization, or government body is above the law
Bill Becomes Law Bill -> Representatives: edit -> Senate: both drafts melded -> both approve -> President for signature -> approve, veto, ignore - ignore 10 days, automatically a law if in in session; pocket veto and rejected if adjourns
Federal Powers, Constitution Article I, Section VIII Federal Powers: To borrow money from foreign countries, mint money, maintain a postal service, raise and support an Army and Navy, and declare war
Bill of Rights First 10 Amendments of the Bill of Rights; includes freedom of speech, right to bear arms, and right to a speedy trial; added to prevent federal gov't from encroaching on states' right to self-government
Massachusetts Constitution Ratified in 1780; oldest functioning constitution in the world; aims to protect the rights of individual citizens; 351 cities and towns responsible for most governmental services for citizens
Democrats Oldest and currently largest political party; platform generally supports a strong central government, government-funded social projects, and a leaning to leftist politics
Republicans (GOP, Grand Old Party) Second largest political party; platform generally supports fiscal and social conservative and supply side economics
Constitution Party Political party that supports the original intentions of the founding fathers
Green Party Political party that supports environmentalism, non-hierarchy democracy, social justice, and nonviolence
Libertarian Party Political party that sup[orts minimal regulation and laissez-faire (hands-off) policies and civil liberties
Scarcity Individual desires may be endless, but resources are always limited
Opportunity Cost The value of what was not chosen because every economic choice rejects alternative options
Capitalistic system Encourages innovation, competition, and an entrepreneurial spirit with the aim of increasing productivity and profit
Monotheism Israelites' great contribution to religious thought and development was the belief in one universal God
Israel Babylonia, 6th century BCE; foreigners ruled for roughly 2,500 years; 20th century - state of Israel
Greece Former territory of Middle Eastern empires; Alexander the Great conquest 4th century BCE; World's first democracy founded at Athens around 500 BCE
Polis City-states that originated in Greece; important political features made up of a city or town and its surrounding countryside; center of an individual's social and political life
Helenic Age, Greece 612-339 BCE; Aristocrat named Draco codified laws for the Athenian polis and posted them for the public; harsh laws - "draconian" derives from the strictness - his contribution was the idea that law belongs to all citizens
Socrates Greek philosopher; Interested in human behavior and ethics; Plato his student
Plato Greek philosopher, student of Socrates; Believed in a more personal approach to body, mind, and world affairs; His pupil was Aristotle
Aristotle Greek philosopher; Plato's pupil; Man of logic, reason, and direct observation
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