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Lab #8 - #11

Bones, Muscles, Nervous System, Eyes, Ears

TermDefinition
Condyle A rounded articulating process
Foramen An opening usually for blood vessels and nerves. Located all over the body.
Fossa A depression
Meatus An elongated opening or tunnel (ear)
Head A single rounded process for articulation
Trochanter, tubercle, tuberosity types of processes primarily for muscle attachment (tendons)
Process A projection such as a condyle or a trochanter
Sinus A cavity that gives lightness to the skull
Suture Where the bones of the skull come together
Frontal Anterior/superior part of skull
Parietal Posterior to superior portion of frontal
Temporals Inferior to middle part of parietals
Occipital Posterior to parietals and temporals. Also part of cranium floor through which the spinal cord emerges.
Sphenoid Inferior to anterior portion of parietals. Also in orbits and floor of cranium. Looks like a butterfly.
Zygomatics Cheek bones
Maxillae Upper jaw bones extending into and between orbits. Also anterior part of roof of mouth.
Nasals Medial to upper part of maxillae
Lacrimals Medial aspects of orbits, posterior to upper part of maxillae.
Ethmoid Posterior to lacrimals in orbits. Also in mid-frontal area of cranial floor and in the nose.
Mandible Lower jaw
Inferior nasal conchae Lower-most of the shelf-like projections seen inside nose, part of the maxillae
Vomer Lower portion of the nasal septum
Palatines Posterior part of the roof of the mouth
Sesamoid Grows of the cartilage. The largest is the knee cap.
Pathological fracture Fracture as a result of weakened, diseased bone
Traumatic fracture Fracture as a result of normal bones placed under abnormal stress.
Simple Broken ends do not penetrate the skin. aka "closed" fracture
Compound Broken ends penetrate the skin. aka "open" fracture
Complete Bone is broken through, in upper and lower pieces
Incomplete Bone is not broken through.
Comminuted Bone is in more than two pieces. Mostly in geriatric patients with osteoperosis.
Greenstick Bone is INCOMPLETELY broken with splintering
Fissured Bone has an incomplete LONGITUDINAL break. aka "hairline" fracture
Spiral Break is a result of an extreme twisting action, can be a comminuted fracture.
Functions of skeletal system Hemopoeisis, Support (framework), Protection of internal organs, Storage of minerals and energy reserve, Movement
Amphiarthroses Partially movable joints - ex: intervertebral, symphysis pubis
Diarthrosis Freely movable joints, aka "synovial" joints. Characterized by having a joint cavity lined with a synovial membrane and lubricated by synovial fluid.
Ball and socket joint Diarthrosis - ex - hip, shoulder
Hinge joint Allow movement in only one place. ex - elbow, finger,
Pivot joint Moving head from one side to the other while keeping head parallel to floor. Atlas and Axis joints of the neck.
Synarthrosis Suture line of skull
Condyloid Two angles of movement. ex - wrist, knuckles
Saddle joint Carpometacarpal joint of the thumb
Fontanel "Soft spot"
Epiphyseal disk It's the growth plate of long bones
Sella turcica Location of the pituatary gland. Passage ways of the optic nerves.
Cristi galli Serves as a connection for an extension of the dura mater that covers and protects the brain.
Cribriform plate Has many foramina for olfactory nerves
Occipital condyle For movement of vertebral column
Auditory meatus - location: Ethmoid, Mandible, Sphenoid or Temporal Temporal
Conchae - location: Ethmoid, Mandible, Sphenoid or Temporal Ethmoid
Coronoid process - location: Ethmoid, Mandible, Sphenoid or Temporal Mandible
Cribriform plate - location: Ethmoid, Mandible, Sphenoid or Temporal Ethmoid
Cristi galli - location: Ethmoid, Mandible, Sphenoid or Temporal Ethmoid
Greater wings - location: Ethmoid, Mandible, Sphenoid or Temporal Sphenoid
Mandibular fossa - location: Ethmoid, Mandible, Sphenoid or Temporal Mandible
Mastoid process - location: Ethmoid, Mandible, Sphenoid or Temporal Mandible
Mental foramen - location: Ethmoid, Mandible, Sphenoid or Temporal Mandible
Optic foramen - location: Ethmoid, Mandible, Sphenoid or Temporal Sphenoid
Perpendicular plate - location: Ethmoid, Mandible, Sphenoid or Temporal Sphenoid
Sella turcica - location: Ethmoid, Mandible, Sphenoid or Temporal Sphenoid
Styloid process - location: Ethmoid, Mandible, Sphenoid or Temporal Temporal
Zygomatic process - location: Ethmoid, Mandible, Sphenoid or Temporal Temporal
Eight bones that make up the cranial cavity Frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, sphenoid, ethmoid, mandible, mental
Acromion process - location: Femur, Fibula, Humerus, Os coxa, Scapula, Tibia or Ulna Scapula
Greater trochanter - location: Femur, Fibula, Humerus, Os coxa, Scapula, Tibia or Ulna Femur
Greater tubercle - location: Femur, Fibula, Humerus, Os coxa, Scapula, Tibia or Ulna Humerus
Lateral malleolus - location: Femur, Fibula, Humerus, Os coxa, Scapula, Tibia or Ulna Tibia
Medial malleolus - location: Femur, Fibula, Humerus, Os coxa, Scapula, Tibia or Ulna Fibula
Obturator foramen - location: Femur, Fibula, Humerus, Os coxa, Scapula, Tibia or Ulna Os coxa
Olecranon process Ulna
Atlas/Axis - type: Amphi, Dia (B&S), Dia (Hinge), Dia (pivot), Synarthrosis Diarthrosis (pivot)
Hip - type: Amphi, Dia (B&S), Dia (Hinge), Dia (pivot), Synarthrosis Diarthrosis (Ball & Socket)
Humerus/Ulna - type: Amphi, Dia (B&S), Dia (Hinge), Dia (pivot), Synarthrosis Diarthrosis (hinge)
Interphalangeal - type: Amphi, Dia (B&S), Dia (Hinge), Dia (pivot), Synarthrosis Diarthrosis (hinge)
Knee - type: Amphi, Dia (B&S), Dia (Hinge), Dia (pivot), Synarthrosis Diarthrosis (hinge)
L1/L2 - type: Amphi, Dia (B&S), Dia (Hinge), Dia (pivot), Synarthrosis Amphiarthrosis
Radius/Ulna - type: Amphi, Dia (B&S), Dia (Hinge), Dia (pivot), Synarthrosis Diarthrosis (pivot)
Sagittal suture - type: Amphi, Dia (B&S), Dia (Hinge), Dia (pivot), Synarthrosis Synarthrosis
Shoulder - type: Amphi, Dia (B&S), Dia (Hinge), Dia (pivot), Synarthrosis Diarthrosis (Ball & Socket)
Nerve cell Basic unit of nervous system
Multipolar neuron Typical neuron
Parts of neuron Axon, dendrite, cell body
Cell body Found in CNS or ganglia, collection of nerve cell bodies outside of the CNS
Grey matter Made up of nerve cell bodies and unmyelinated fibers
White matter Peripheral nerves made up of myelinated axons
Axon Transmit impulses away from the cell body
Dendrite Transmit impulses into the cell body
Nissl bodies Make up the ER of the neuron, involved in the anabolic activities of the cell
Schwann cells a series of small cells that wrap around the fibers of the peripheral axons
Myelin sheath Several layers of Schwann cells for insulation
Nodes of Ranvier Gaps in the myelin sheath, allows impulses to jump between gaps resulting in increase of velocity of transmission
Neurilemma Outermost part of each Schwann cell, encloses the nucleus and cytoplasm necessary for regeneration
Schwann cells (additional) Only found in the periphery fibers of the brain and spinal cord, incapable of regeneration
Na+ channels Only found between the myelin sheaths, NOT WITHIN
Fasicles Bundles of fibers
Epineurium Tough, fibrous connective tissue that bind the fasicles together
Endoneurium Delicate connective tissue covering the fibers
Gyrus Raised areas of the brain
Fissure or sulcus Each depression between the gyrus
Cerebellum - function Equilibrium
Cerebral aqueduct - function Connects 3rd and 4th ventricles
Cerebrum - function Higher though processes
Frontal lobe - function Motor activities
Gyrus - function Raised area in brain wrinkling
Hypothalamus - function Critical in homeostasis
Medulla - function Vital reflex center
Midbrain - function Optic and auditory reflexes
Occipital lobe - function Sight
Parietal lobe - function General sensations
Sulcus - function Depression between gyri
Temporal lobe - function Hearing
Thalamus - function Sensory relay
Sclera (eye) Outermost layer for protection and maintenance of shape. White of the eye
Choroid (eye) Dark vascular layer which absorbs light to prevent reflection. Animals that can see at night have a mother of pearl sheen to this layers.
Retina Translucent inner layer which contains rods and cones.
Fovea centralis (eye) Focal point of the eye
Cones (eye) Concentrated in the fovea centralis to produce color vision in bright light.
Rods (eye) Located throughout the retina (away from the fovea centralis). Specialized for black and white peripheral vision.
Lacrimal gland (eye) Produces tears for eye lubrication. Tears contain lysozyme.
Anterior cavity Between the cornea and iris. Contains aqueous humor to maintain the shape of the front of the eye.
Iris Colored part of the eye.
Lens Behind iris, focuses light on retina.
Ciliary body Dark, circular structure around the eye
Pupil Black hole of eye, opening of the iris
Nerve CI Olfactory, Smell, Sensory
Nerve CII Optic, Sight, Sensory
Nerve CIII Oculomotor, Eyes, Motor
Nerve CIV Trochlear, Eyes, Motor
Nerve CV Trigeminal, Face/Tongue, Both
Nerve CVI Abducens, Eyes, Motor
Nerve CVII Facial, Face/Tongue, Both
Nerve CVIII Acoustic, Hearing, Sensory
Nerve CIX Glossopharyngeal, Tongue/Salivary, Both
Nerve CX Vagus, Parasympathetic, Both
Nerve CXI Spinal, Throat/Neck, Motor
Nerve CXII Hypoglossal, Tongue/Chewing, Motor
Sensory Nervous System Detects stimuli and transmits information from receptors to the CNS
Motor Nervous System Initiates and transmits information from the CNS to effectors
Somatic Sensory Sensory input that is CONSCIOUSLY perceived from receptors such as skin, eyes and ears.
Visceral Sensory Sensory input that is UNCONSCIOUSLY perceived from blood vessels and internal organs
Somatic Motor Motor output that is CONSCIOUSLY or VOLUNTARILY controlled; effector is skeletal muscle
Autonomic Motor Motor output that UNCONSCIOUSLY or INVOLUNTARILY controlled, effectors are cardiac muscle, smooth muscle and glands
Multipolar Neuron Motor and association, 99% in humans, spinal cord to muscles, many dendrites, one axon
Bipolar Neuron Sensory such as eyes and ears, one dendrite, one axon, ex: eye to brain
Unipolar Sensory such as skin, one dendrite and one axon meet at same connection point of neuron, ex: skin to spinal cord
Created by: daydreamer67