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Blood & Heart

QuestionAnswer
Plasma A clear, extracellular matrix.
Plasma Accounts for 55% of blood.
Formed Elements Includes erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets.
Formed Elements Make up 45% of blood
Water The main component of water.
Albumin The main protein of plasma
Serum Plasma without the clotting proteins.
Buffy Coat Narrow buff colored band just underneath the plasma.
Buffy Coat 1% of less of blood volume.
Hematocrit The percentage of red blood cells in a sample of blood.
Viscosity The thickness of stickiness of blood.
Hemopoiesis The production of blood.
Hemoglobin A red pigment that gives blood its color.
Globins Ribbon like protein chains.
Heme Iron containing molecule.
RBCs Shaped like a disc with a sunken in center.
Hematocrit Female 37%-48% Male 45%-52%
Hemoglobin Female 12-16 g/dl Male 13%-18 g/dl
RBC Count Female 4.2-5.4 million/mm^3 Male 4.6-6.2 million/mm^3
Sickle Cell Disease When RBCs shape become distorted.
Erythropoiesis Process of producing new RBCs.
Hemolysis When the destruction of RBCs becomes excessive.
Polycythemia When the rate att which new RBCs are being created exceeds the rate at which the old ones are being destroyed.
Anemia A deficiency of RBCs or hemoglobin.
Pernicious Anemia Lack of vitamin B12.
WBCs Fewest of the formed elements.
WBSs Body's line of defense against invasion by infectious pathogens.
Granulocytes Those having obvious granules.
Agranulocytes Those having few or no granules.
Neutrophils Highly mobile, they quickly migrate out of blood vessels and into tissue spaces, where they engulf and digest foreign materials.
Eosinophils Involves in allergic reactions; they also kill parasites.
Basophils Secrete heparin, which prevents clotting in the infected are so WBCs can enter; they alson secrete histamine, a substance that causes blood vessels to leak, which attracts WBCs.
Lymphocytes Responsible for long term immunity.
T Lymphocytes Directly attack an infected or cancerous cell.
B Lymphocutes Produce antibodies against certain antigens.
Monocytes Highly phagocytic and can engulf large bacteria and the viral infected cells.
Leukopenia Abnormally low WBC count.
Leukocytosis Elevated WBC count.
Platelets Second most abundant of all the formed elements.
Platelets Play a role in stopping bleeding.
Coagulation Blood clotting
Blood Type A 40% of America has this blood type
Blood Type B 11% of America has this blood type.
Blood Type AB 4% of America has this blood type.
Blood Type O 45% of America has this blood type.
Base Where the great vessels enter and leave the heart.
Apex The point of maximum impulse, where the strongest beat can be felt or heard.
Mediastinum A space between the lungs and beneath the sternum.
Pericardium A double walled sac that surrounds the heart.
Fibrous pericardium A loose fitting sac of strong connective tissue-is the outermost layer.
Serous Pericardium Covers the heart's surface.
Parietal Layer Lines the inside of the fibrous pericardium
Visceral Layer Covers the heart's surface.
Pericardial Cavity Contains a small amount of serous fluid, which helps prevent friction as the heart beats.
Endocardium Lines the heart's chambers, covers the valves, and continues into the vessels.
Myocardium Composed of cardiac muscle, forms the middle layer. It's the thickest of the three layers and performs the work of the heart.
Epicardium Covers the heart's surface.
Interatrial septum Wall of myocardium that seperates the right and left atria.
Interventricular Septum Seperates the right and left ventricles.
Atria Upper 2 chambers.
Ventricles Lower 2 cambers.
AV Valves Regulate flow between the atria and the ventricles.
Right AV Valve (tricuspid) Prevents backflow from the right ventricle to the right atria.
Left AV Valve (bicuspid or mitral) Prevents backflow from the left ventricle to the left atria.
Semilunar Valves Regulate flow between the ventricles and the great arteries.
Pulmonary Valve Prevents backflow from the pulmonary artery to the right ventricle
Aortic Valve Prevents backflow from the aorta to the left ventricle.
Valvular Disease A heart valve that fails to prevent the backflow of blood during contraction.
Coronary Arteries Deliver oxygenated blood to the myocardium, while cardiac veins collect deoxygenated blood.
Right Coronary Artery Supplies blood to the right atrium, part of the left atrium, most of the right ventricle, and the inferior part of the left ventricle.
Left Coronary Artery Branches into the anterior descending and circumflex arteries, supplies blood to the left atrium, most of the left ventricle, and most of the interventricular septum.
Myocardial Infarction Heart attack
Coronary Sinus Large transverse vein on the heart's posterior, which returns the blood to the right atrium.
ECG Rcords the electrical activity or impulses of the heart.
Normal Sinus Rhythm An ECG that appears normal.
Arrhythmia Irregular heartbeat.
P Wave represents atrial depolarization: the transmission of electrical impulses from the SA node through the atria.
PR Interval Represents the time it takes for the cardiac impulse to travel from the atria to the ventricles.
QRS Complex Represents ventricular depolarization: the spread of electrical impulses throughout the ventricles.
ST Segment Represents the end of ventricular depolarization and the beginning of ventricular repolarization.
T Wave Represents ventricular repolarization.
Arrhythmias Result when part of the conduction pathway is injured or when a part of the myocardium other than te SA node generates a beat.
Systole Contraction.
Diastole Relaxation.
Cardiac Output The amount of blood the heart pumps in 1 minute.
Heart Rate The number of times the heart beats in 1 minute.
Stroke Volume The amount of blood ejected with each heartbeat.
Bradycardia Pulse rate slower than 60 bpm
Tachycardia Pulse rate greater than 100 bpm.
Congestive Heart Failure Results when either ventricle fails to pump blood effectively.
Created by: lorenlassley